No One Thinks Big Of You Evaluation Essay

42911893 Critical evaluation of ‘Speeding – No one thinks big of you’ Tutor: Dr. Ross Gordon MKTG 309 Monday 3pm ‘Pinkie’ campaign MKTG309 Critical analysis Contents Introduction................................................................................................................................2 Social marketing, scope of social marketing, new ideas and opportunities..............................2 Formative research.....................................................................................................................4 Target group segmentation strategy..........................................................................................5 Objectives and goals...................................................................................................................6 Social marketing mix..................................................................................................................7 Process, impact and outcome evaluation..................................................................................8 Ethical implications.....................................................................................................................8 Strengths, weaknesses and suggestions....................................................................................8 Strengths............................................................................................................................8 Weaknesses........................................................................................................................9 Reflection............................................................................................................................9 Conclusion................................................................................................................................10 References................................................................................................................................10 1 ‘Pinkie’ campaign MKTG309 Critical analysis Speeding, No One Thinks Big Of You (Pinkie) – RTA Introduction In 2007, the RTA set out to respond to the rise of road accidents attributed to speeding during that time (Stead, et al., 2009, 63). This new approach was to “…make contact with a traditionally difficult to reach target audience (young men) with an anti speeding message that would have an impact on their attitudes, beliefs and motivate behaviour change” (Watsford, 2009, 390). This campaign was referred to as ‘Pinkie’ with the message to suggest speeding was no longer ‘cool.’ It shows various scenarios where a driver is seen speeding and captures the response from the wider community, each time negative. The final scene shows the driver seeing his friends showing the ‘pinkie’ sign. Disapproval from friends has the most impact and the advertisement ends with the message, ‘Speeding – no one thinks big of you.’ Through social marketing, the campaign was successful in increasing awareness and changing behaviour. Below is a table outlining the main features of this campaign. Topic area Speeding Focus Target group ‘Speeding – No Mostly men, Scale National and Processes/strategies Reframing, de- one thinks big plus wider regional normalising, of you’ population (‘Pinkie’) groups empathy, ridicule Adapted from (Stead, et al., 2009, 10) Social marketing, scope of social marketing, new ideas and opportunities. Commercial marketing and social marketing stem from the same concepts, however their goal and objectives differ. Both will make their audience aware of the thing they are trying to 2 ‘Pinkie’ campaign MKTG309 Critical analysis sell and offering it when and where they need to know this information. Social marketing ultimately aims to change the behaviour of their target group. Like commercial marketing, social marketing needs to ensure it grabs the audience’s attention, increases awareness and persuasion. The difference between the two are; “commercial marketing focuses on the needs of the individual as identified by the individual whereas social marketing focuses on the needs of the individual as identified by the social marketer” (Iverson, et al., 2005, 2). Commercial marketing will make you aware of things that you will want, and social marketing will try to sell things you know you don’t want through education and persuasion. Social marketing campaigns will not often be successful if they do not learn from the methods of commercial marketing. This includes:  focusing on individual needs  using research  segmenting the market  setting objectives  developing communication messages  and distributing the campaign through various mediums (Iverson, et al., 2005, 3). One limitation of social marketing for this programme is that people often tune out such messages. This is because social marketing often contains content that people do not wish to know or think they do not need to know. The ‘Pinkie’ campaign strayed away from traditional shock and fear tactics, using “humour, low key realism, empathy and ridicule to change norms around speeding” (Stead, et al., 2009, 4). It was a success in doing so. Prior to this campaign, there were other cases doing the same successfully, “showing how humour, empathy and positive messages can engage people’s emotions as effectively as fear-based messages” (Stead, et al., 2009, 5). Pinkie also offered the chance for peers to call out on one another against risky behaviour. Fear of being alienated discourages people from reinforcing safe driving (Scott-Parker, Watson and King, 2009). 3 ‘Pinkie’ campaign MKTG309 Critical analysis The competition for speeding includes the existing behaviours already held by young male drivers. Drivers that regularly speed consider it to be normative behaviour because ‘everyone else does it’ and so their behaviour adapts so. “…Public and targeted media and education campaigns, and peer programs that discourage rewarding risky driver behaviour, are potential avenues for intervention” (Scott-Parker, Watson and King, 2009, 478). Formative research As stated previously, the ‘Pinkie’ campaign strayed from traditional road safety messages by using the influence of personal risks. “Traditionally, traffic psychology has explored risk perceptions from the perspective of risks associated with crashes, injury, detection, and sanctions (J.J. Fleiter et al., 2010, 51). This campaign attempted to change society’s perspective to speeding by suggesting there are personal consequences of alienation as punishment. “The campaign was also designed to counteract the ‘fast car = big man’ theme of commercial car advertising” (Stead, et al., 2009, 69). This campaign was produced by Clemenger BBDO Sydney and had a budget of $1.9 million (Watsford, 2009). “Formative research revealed that there was potential in a campaign that ridiculed people who speed and demonstrated that this behaviour was unacceptable, not respected and not regarded as cool by their peers – especially young women” (Watsford, 2009, 391). From this we can see that the major objective by RTA draws from this research which confirms it’s potential. Furthermore, the creative concepts came from audience testing. This had three stages, “including initial concepts, refinement of concepts and off-line edit stage. Focus groups were conducted in metropolitan and country areas” (Watsford, 2009, 391). Because the campaign was aimed both nationally and locally the geographical range was important to meet the diverse audience perspectives. They also conducted research across a broad range of demographics. “Research groups included the target audience of males 17-25 years of age, male and female P plate drivers and male and female drivers from 30 to 50 years of age, 4 ‘Pinkie’ campaign MKTG309 Critical analysis representing the wider community. A spread of occupations, family status and ethnicity was also achieved” (Watsford, 2009, 391). This was particularly useful because there was also a secondary target group, which was the wider community. The social marketing had the aim of “empowering the community to encourage safer driving. This was reflected in the execution of the adverts, which featured a range of community members” (Stead, et al., 2009, 66). There was also further exploratory research including the target group of young males aged 17-25 as well as the greater population aged up to 50. The campaign tested its key concepts using “…off-line edit versions of the television and cinema adverts as well as on the outdoor adverts. A third of the participants in the formative research had previous convictions for speeding within the last three years” (Stead, et al., 2009, 71). The research on people who speeding convictions is highly relative to understand better how to change the behaviour of this group. Research of other campaigns was not done because there was no main theory used (Stead, et al., 2009, 68). It can be said however, that theory of planned behaviour is likely to be successful because the key concept is the subjective norms; “beliefs about what important others would expect us to do, coupled with our motivation to comply with these expectations” (J.J. Fleiter et al., 2010, 50). At the same time, to be considered is one negative aspect to this theory. “…It has been argued that the normative-intention relationship is the weakest part of the theory because of the narrow focus on the expectations of other people” (J.J. Fleiter et al., 2010, 50). As a result, theory of planned behaviour would not always explain the need for enforcement to curb speeding in young males. Target group segmentation strategy The campaign targets young males aged 17-25 who regularly speed when driving. “In NSW speeding is predominantly a male problem, with 85 per cent of drivers involved in fatal speeding crashes being males” (Watsford, 2009, 390). It also encompasses the wider community to take responsibility to this kind of behaviour. When looking to the causes of speeding as a subjective norm, there are two kinds of social influential others: “people 5 ‘Pinkie’ campaign MKTG309 Critical analysis known to the driver (passengers and parents, and unknown other drivers” (J.J. Fleiter et al., 2010, 49). According to research, competition with not speeding includes keeping up with traffic and perceived pressure to speed up (Ibid). The advertisement has three different observers to speeding drivers. “The disapproval of one’s mates is the most powerful deterrent to youth speeding and poor driving” (Watsford, 2009, 392). This kind of personal risk is what the campaign aims to tackle. There are three aspects to this considered as ‘social punishments’:  embarrassment,  breaching the trust of others,  presenting an image of a responsible driver (Fleiter, Lennon & Watson, 2010, 1) At the same time, research has shown that some speeders in fact slow down when they have passengers in their car. “There was considerable agreement across most groups (even among those who self-identified as Excessive speeders) that having passengers in the car led to them driving more slowly” (J.J. Fleiter et al., 2010, 53). Using this information, the campaign could have emphasised this as a barrier to speeding. Objectives and goals As stated previously, the objective was to shift NSW’s attitude about speeding away from the social norm. The goal was to reduce the cause of accidents arising from speeding. This was done using focusing by suggesting risky driving behaviour to be regarded as ‘uncool’ by their peers (Watsford, 2009). This approach has resulted in success for the campaign straying away from traditional methods by looking at how speeding is both punished and rewarded. “…Research outside the road safety field has considered the role of extra-legal sanctions in modifying behaviour such as socially-based consequences which have been shown to exert independent and strong effects on the extent of deviant behaviour” (J.J. Fleiter et al., 2010, 50). Through education and publicity of a ‘socially-imposed sanction’, it has raised consumer awareness and acceptance of road safety issues. This ‘sanction’ is the “embarrassment associated with reactions from salient others when they become aware of the behaviour” 6 ‘Pinkie’ campaign MKTG309 Critical analysis (J.J. Fleiter et al., 2010, 50). It established speeding as something weak in contrast with driving sensibly as a sign of control and normal (Stead, et al., 2009). This goal is most effective in influencing the younger demographic as they look to their peers for gratification and approval. Focusing on the influence of other people has been what drives the success of the campaign. Social learning theory can also be applicable to this campaign. The target would look to the differential associations/reinforcements to drive their behaviour in anticipation of the reward, or even punishment. (J.J. Fleiter et al., 2010). For example, the driver considers if their peer’s presence is a pressure into speeding. Social marketing mix The social marketing mix focused primarily as a mass media campaign. It was shown with “… three segments screened on TV and in cinemas, complemented by other media communications such as print advertising, campaign roadshows, celebrity endorsement by model Imogen Bailey, other public relations activities such as television news items and newspaper articles and a MySpace page” (Stead, et al., 2009, 63). The use of a young celebrity enables the target group to see her as a peer not as an authoritative figure. This method is much more effective in shifting public attitudes towards speeding. Furthermore, using mass media complements the strategy to create speeding as something that is socially unacceptable, much like the behaviours of drink-driving and not wearing a seat belt (Stead, et al., 2009, 63). “By using communications which took a community approach, with adverts featuring and containing prompts for non-drivers in the adverts, the campaign aimed to increase the social unacceptability of speeding across the community, not just amongst young people” (Stead, et al., 2009, 64). The lack of an online presence controlled by the distributors was harmful for the campaign. It still had great interest online (Watsford, 2009). This is a major drawback because at the time online video had huge potential to have a larger impact on the younger demographic. 7 ‘Pinkie’ campaign MKTG309 Critical analysis Process, impact and outcome evaluation The process of the ‘Pinkie’ marketing programme is considered to be up to standard. However, there was no theory basis which would have provided a framework for action. Research was thorough and relevant during all stages of the formative process. The success of this campaign is seen as it became a part of the youth culture. It also was used as parodies in popular culture and commercials. “The campaign has generated more news media stories than any previous road safety initiative in the RTA’s history (Watsford, 2009, 394). The campaign was successful locally and internationally. “It helped achieve a record low road toll in NSW in 2007” (Watsford, 2009, 392). In quantitative tracking, “it is the most successful road safety advertising campaign ever, by RTA/in NSW? achieving 97% awareness among young male drivers and 95% among the general community” (Watsford, 2009, 392). These statistics suggest the success of the outcome of this campaign. Ethical implications Ethically it has been successful in not spreading any hate or negative messages about certain groups. At the same time, many had criticised the ‘pinkie’ signal as “insulting and insensitive, and several complaints have been referred to the Advertising Standards Bureau” (Stead, et al., 2009, 73). In addition, a man was charged from throwing an object at a woman after she had used the signal derived from this campaign (Stead, et al., 2009). This impact represents the negative aspect of social marketing where messages become subjective. Strengths, weaknesses and suggestions Strengths  Good formative research conducted. Formative research also allowed ads to be modified before going into expensive production stage” (Stead, et al., 2009, 73).  Innovative to speak to the youth demographic  Clear objective in de-normalising speeding 8 ‘Pinkie’ campaign MKTG309  Segmented the market well by focusing on young males  Mostly ethical in not offending particular groups  Effective in increasing awareness  Sustainable as a long-term campaign Critical analysis Weaknesses  Lack of theory as a basis. Theory can provide a framework for action.  Not relatable to ‘high risk’ speeders  No strong online presence  Not integrated with all potential mediums e.g. online  Needs seeding strategy online Reflection Prior to this campaign, “…little attention has been paid to harnessing the influence of others in speed management” (J.J. Fleiter et al., 2010, 50). However there is suggestion that this approach is limited to success with ‘high risk’ speeders” (J.J. Fleiter et al., 2010). It is because these drivers are less likely to be willing to change their behaviour and hear the arguments against such risky behaviour. “…‘Fear research’ suggests there is a risk that viewers avoid such advertising after initial viewing because it is too distressing, or discount it as unrealistic, not personally relevant and lacking in credibility” (Stead, et al., 2009, 63). Viewers dismiss shock scenarios because they do not feel it to be relatable. The ‘Pinkie’ campaign was successful in responding to these findings. It was innovative in “…delivering the anti-speeding message in a youthful, non-authoritative way…It also served to provoke a timely public debate and galvanise the wider community” (Watsford, 2009, 394). Because the campaign deliberately chose to stray from traditional crash and risk warnings, it was an “important step forward in addressing speeding among groups that have rejected traditional anti-speeding messages” (J.J. Fleiter et al., 2010, 54). One limitation of the campaign staying away from ‘shock’ altogether, viewer needs to watch the whole advertisement to really understand the concept. “Even though there are no spoken words in the television commercial it is a complex piece of Communication” (Watsford, 2009, 392). 9 ‘Pinkie’ campaign MKTG309 Critical analysis Furthermore, in today’s marketing environment, having no online presence is selfdestructive. It is suggested that “More integrated and multifaceted approaches may be needed to have a sustained impact on speeding behavior” (Stead, et al., 2009, 73). If the campaign were developed in 2015, there would be a huge push to make the video viral and increase search engine optimisation. It should have used paid online advertising or a seeding strategy. Conclusion Overall, RTA’s anti-speeding campaign was a huge success. The main objective and goal was to make speeding ‘uncool’ and socially unacceptable. The target was to young, male drivers but also incorporated the use of community to enforce these social restrictions. Formative research was conducted thoroughly, contributing to the successful dissemination of the social marketing message. Forces preventing the success is the ingrained thought-process of widespread speeding and taking the car instead of the bus. In contrast to traditional campaigns, it did not attempt to use the fear and shock tactic. These types of social media campaigns often get ignored because the audience cannot identify with them. The outcome of this campaign has seen a decrease in accidents caused by speeding in the years after. The success could have been improved with an integrated online approach using paid video advertising. References  Fleiter, J., Lennon, A., & Watson, B. (2010). How do other people influence your driving speed? Exploring the ‘who’ and the ‘how’ of social influences on speeding from a qualitative perspective. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology And Behaviour, 13(1), 49-62. doi:10.1016/j.trf.2009.10.002  Iverson, DC, Jones, SC, Penman, A and Tang, A, 2005, A practical application of theory: using social marketing theory to develop innovative and comprehensive sun protection campaigns, in Rentschler, R and Hall, J (eds), Proceedings of At the Threshold: 2nd Australasian Nonprofit and Social Marketing Conference, Deakin University 10 ‘Pinkie’ campaign  MKTG309 Critical analysis Scott-Parker, B., Watson, B. and King, M. (2009). Understanding the psychosocial factors influencing the risky behaviour of young drivers. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 12(6), pp.470-482.  Stead,, M., Gordon,, R., Holme,, I., Moodie,, C., Hastings, G. and Angus, K. (2009). Changing attitudes, knowledge and behaviour: A review of successful initiatives. Joseph Rowntree Foundation.  Watsford, R. (2008). The success of the ‘Pinkie’ campaign - Speeding. No one thinks big of you: A new approach to road safety marketing. Joint ACRS-Travelsafe National Conference, 390-395. 11

Help

The Roads and Traffic Authority, NSW, Australia, has just launched an anti-speeding campaign aimed at young men, using the tagline, “Speeding. No one thinks big of you”. The 45 second TV ad, launched tonight, features a young man burning rubber on a city street, hoping to impress the girls. However they’re not impressed. Instead of thumbs up, they show limp pinkies, using their little fingers to indicate the size of the speeding guy’s appendage and intelligence! Another driver narrowly misses a female pedestrian. He gets the pinkie verdict from another older woman who witnesses the incident. To top it off, the back seat passengers produce the pinkie verdict as their driver swerves his way around a street corner due to high speed.

Click on the image below to play the video in YouTube

The RTA has developed the campaign in response to two factors. Many young guys see speeding as cool. All the ads in the world showing the serious injury and death that speeding can cause are becoming less effective. Increasingly, young guys simply reject this message. They have an “it won’t happen to me” attitude. The ‘Speeding. No one thinks big of you’ campaign takes a totally different approach. It offers young drivers an immediate consequence… speed and people will think poorly of you. It purposely talks to young guys in their language. Testing of the finished ad has shown this is a very salient thought that will change young drivers’ behaviour. It could very well be the thread that unravels the mindset that speeding is cool.

In NSW speeding is a factor in about 40 per cent of road deaths each year. This means more than 220 people die each year in NSW because of speeding. In addition to those killed, more than 4000 people are injured in speed-related crashes each year. The estimated cost to the community of speed-related crashes is about $500 million a year.

Credits

The Pinkies ad was developed at Clemenger BBDO, Sydney, by art directors Baz Baker and Pic Andrews, copywriter Chris Pearce, and agency producers Denise McKeon and Laura O’Connor, account managers Anne Gibson and Sarah Regan, account planners Gillian McNaughton and Taz Bareham.

Filming was shot by Glue Society director Gary Freedman via @Radical Media, Sydney, with director of photography Keith Wagstaff.

Music was composed by Hylton Mowday at JAM.

Media was planned by Jordaan Knaap, Customedia.

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