Political Change in Europe in the Modern Era Essay example
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European nations gained world dominance between the 15th and 19th centuries through imperialism and industrialization. European nations competed among themselves for international influence, and established by the early 20th century a very intricate balance of power, the disturbance of which ignited World War I in 1914. Over this same period, the power of monarchs within European nations declined as a larger portion of the populace demanded political rights, leading to the democratization of most political systems throughout Western Europe. These shifts in political systems were fed by urbanization, by the rise of class consciousness within the masses, and by the spread of ideas of political and economic philosophers who challenged the…show more content…
Industrialization quickened, but the workers lived in squalor and worked without the enforcement of safety laws or the aid of unions until soviets, councils of representatives from the working class, were formed.
Alexander’s reforms opened the door for state officials and others who wanted change to voice their ideas, premiere among which were proposals for zemstvas (local elected officials) to have a role, either advisory or legislatively, in the governing of the empire. Many intellectuals and community leaders called for a moderation of the tsar’s absolute power, and were incensed when Nicholas II (1894-1905) rejected these proposals. A few called for a conversion to constitutional monarchy, and some more radical groups called for violent revolution or dramatic change. A loose anti-autocratic alliance formed between many liberals, assemblies of nobles, professionals, workers, peasants, and minority nationality groups that had long resented rule by the Russian Emperor.
In January 1905, Father Gapon, an orthodox priest and agent of the police force, organized a peaceful march to the Tsar’s Winter Palace in Petersburg by workers petitioning for better workplace conditions and political and civil rights. On what came to be remembered as Bloody Sunday, the tsar’s troops fired on the crowd, killing at least 100 unarmed
Andrew Jackson looked on toward a new democracy after his victory at New Orleans. The changes in this time period, after the war of 1812, would send America into a troubled future. The Post war political and economic changes would prove to be another stepping stone in America's evolving democracy.
The political changes after the War of 1812 would redefine America's newly founded Democracy and contribute to a greater national government. Andrew Jackson gained America's respect after his victory at New Orleans and was later elected President in 1829. Jackson and his cabinet invested power into an powerful Executive Branch. The Jackson democrats tended to exaggerate the puissance of the lower class poor while decreasing the influence of the rich and potent and aristocracy. Andrew Jackson abolished restrictions on voting and increased active participation in the government by the lower and middle classes. Jackson also made the government more directly responsible to the people without the use of federally funded improvements.
After the war of 1812, the federal government not only grew domestically but also internationally. The Monroe Doctrine shifted America's foreign policy. The Monroe Doctrine stated that European nations may not interfere or influence nations or colonies in the Western Hemisphere. Although at the time America lacked the military capacity to enforce this Doctrine, this policy was a major shift away from George Washington's policy of neutrality. The U.S. continued its policy of non involvement in European wars, but Europe now was expected to stay away from the Western Hemisphere. The U.S. continued to enforce this Doctrine to this day, with perhaps the most famous example being President Kennedy's Cuban Blockade. After the War of 1812, America's nationalism and unification began to fade in the face of sectionalism. The North and the South soon began to dispute over controversial...