Mb0046 Solved Assignment 2012 Olympics

Unit 7 Sustainable Tourism Development Assignment - London Olympics

Program

BTEC Higher National Diploma in Travel and Tourism

Unit Number and Title

Unit 7 Sustainable Tourism Development - London Olympics

QFC Level

Level 5

Introduction

This unit 7 sustainable tourism development london olympics assignment will helps us in understanding the concept of sustainable tourism development. Sustainable development refers to the process of growth which can be achieved by utilizing the limited resources in the most efficient manner and saving the natural resources for the future generation. Importance of planning, role of various stakeholders in the tourism planning, PPP concept and other aspects of sustainable development in tourism will be discussed. With the help of a case study on London Olympics, and other destinations; the concept of sustainable tourism and its role in the economic growth will be cleared.

Task 1

1.1 Benefits to stakeholders from tourism developments planning

Sporting events are a great source of growth for the tourism industry as well as for the local communities. The event of London Olympics 2012 is one such event which has attracted the tourists from all over the world. It was an international event in which various countries had participated. Stakeholders including the owners, investors, employees, government, regulatory and other authority bodies and local communities of London had the responsibility of planning the event efficiently.

Tourism helps in growth and development of an economy. It provides benefits to each and every stakeholder associated with the tourism. Like in this case, it has benefitted many stakeholders like:

  • Government:Is one of the key stakeholders in tourism planning and development. Government can contribute in the planning of such a big event to boost the tourism rate by allocating the natural scarce resources, funds, legal permissions and other facilities to the organisers in order to plan and organise a great event. Income from Tourism industry contributes in the economic growth. It generates revenues for the government and promotes it in the world.
  • Local community: They get the direct benefits for the tourism and related events like Olympic Games as it provides various employment opportunities to them. These events are a great opportunity for them to earn more in few days. These events bring huge no. of tourist from all parts of the world. It promotes the country for the rest of the life.
  • Crafts, traditions and other skills of the local community are also recognised by various people; which further leads to different employment and growth opportunities for them.
  • Tourism authority or regulatory body:These are the organizations which carry out the entire planning and execution of such events. These bodies play a major role in implementing the sustainable tourism activities to fulfil the needs and requirements of such events. These authorities identify the global trends & demands and create new destinations and improve the existing destinations to increase the tourism rate. They are also responsible to maintain and promote the green and sustainable tourism and encourage others to follow the same.

London Olympics or any other such tourism events are an effective mode of generating revenues and creating employment opportunities for the local people. The infrastructure also developed on a large scale, the no. of stadium and swimming pools, restaurants, hotels, resorts etc. were created for the event. This has resulted in the increase of countries reputation and goodwill in the world (Sautter, and Leisen, 1999)

1.2 Advantages and disadvantages of public/private partnership

The partnership between the private and public sectors is very important for the successful execution of any sporting or other tourism event. The private sector will use the latest technology, expertise and skills to complete the event on time and the public sector can helps in clearing all the legal requirements and allocating the huge funds for the events. This partnership can be fruitful for the success of the event. The partnership has both the advantages and the disadvantages which are as follows:

Advantages of Public Private Partnership (PPP):

  • Cost reduction:The private firms are always known for utilizing the funds efficiently. There are many resources which are available at higher prices for the private sector but at low cost for the government activities. But; as there will be partnership between the public and private sector; the resources can be available at low prices leading to reduction in overall costs for the event.
  • Risk sharing: The risks can be shared among the private and public partners. It is a very essential element as it will provide security to each partner that if anything goes wrong or becomes unsuccessful, the liabilities will be shared by both of them.
  • Increase in service quality:with the involvement of public or government bodies in the planning and execution process of an event, the quality of services can be ensured. With the events like Olympic Games, the reputation of UK government was at risk. Hence; the organisers could not compromise on the service quality.

Disadvantages of PPP

  • Low competition:When the PPP will enter in the market, the competition will automatically reduce. But in order to maintain a healthy and developing environment, competition is required. The PPP will decrease the healthy competitive spirit and rate in the market.
  • Lack of control:When an event or activity is organized with the help of partnership, the control of each partner reduces. Due to private partnership, the control on various tourism activities of UK government will decrease. When two or more people or organizations are associated with a project, the conflicts are bound to happen as every person has unique identity, behaviour and thought process. When the ideas of private and public sector will clash then the conflicts will arise among them.

Task 2

2.1 Tourism development planning at different levels of London Olympic

Tourism arranging can occur "at different levels going from the large scale, national and regional levels to the different micro scale levels". Plans created for a particular level, must focus on that level only, but it should be made in such a manner that it can coordinate with the other levels as well because planning on one level could affect the planning of another level.

Tourism planning in UK will focus on developing activities and system at different levels for the London Olympics. The development on various areas will be planned;

  • Planning is required to develop UK as a sustainable tourist destination:The first level of planning will focus on developing a ground level plan which will help UK to implement sustainable tourism activities and develop itself as the sustainable tourist destination . It requires the contribution of general public of UK to contribute and protect the environment by reducing the pollution level, population and other negative things which may hamper the image of the country.
  • Climate, temperature, pollution, population, diversity, culture etc, attracts visitors from all over the world. Hence tourism development planning will focus on maintaining and promote this image of UK in the world.
  • Planning is essential for infrastructure development: The next level of planning will focus on improving and developing the infrastructure in UK. The transportation, hospitality industry, communication, health care and travelling facilities have to be improved in order to provide the best services for the visitors. These facilities and infrastructure attracts many travellers.
  • Increasing the business or employment opportunities:The next level of tourism planning will focus on improving the business and other employment opportunities. The employment will increase as many people and organizations are required to fulfil the needs of the visitors which will be visiting in huge no’s to UK during the Olympics. It will provide many opportunities to businesses (whether small or big) and individuals to earn and generate revenues during this period.
  • Increasing and generating the income sources:It is also important to plan the sources which can generate more income and revenues for the economy. With the development of infrastructure and employment opportunities, the income or revenue sources will also increase.

2.2 Significance of interactive planning systems in London Olympic

Conducting the sports events like London Olympiad is  a very complex process as it is an international event, where various countries participate and the national reputation of London is at risk as it a host country and world will expect extraordinary arrangements from it. In such developments, the interactive planning system plays an important role as it concerned with achieving the future objectives by improving the current situations and scenarios. It is based on three main elements which are:

  • Holistic principle: It says that the current situations must be improved and upgraded to achieve the objectives and targets of future.
  • Interactive planning is a continuous process. Once started, it should never be stopped. It is essential for the stakeholders to regularly evaluate the plans and improvise them on a continuous basis.
  • Interactive planning is not a job of a single person or organization. All the stakeholders must be involved in the planning process of tourism development.

In order to develop, maintain and improve the sustainable tourism development; interactive planning is very essential because:

By investigation of market structure efficient market segmentation may be facilitated. It is also helpful in dividing sub-groups and groups. 

  • It assists in developing and designing the efficient services and products for different market segment to secure the goals chosen.
  • It gives an opportunity to improve the personal & national image and increases the growth in an economy by fulfilling the needs of the visitors.
  • It gives the opportunity to various stakeholders to participate in the process of planning which builds confidence and loyalty among them.
  • It creates awareness about the tourism event or project in the market.
  • Interactive planning identifies the current issues and removes them so that the tourism can be increased and revenues can be generated.
  • It leads to simpler execution as all the activities and information has been transparent and everyone is aware about the project.

2.3 Methods to measure tourist impact with reference to London Olympiad

Due to London Olympics, the tourism has increased a lot in UK. In the same way, various tourism activities impact the economy of the country. In order to measure the impact of tourism on the country, following models or tools can be used:

Keynesian Multiplier Model:

       Fig: A Keynesian Model

This model is used to measure the growth in regional area due to increase in tourism. It measures the change in IS due to spending or expenses.

Input-Output Matrix Model:This model is concerned with the national economy. It measures the tourism flow. The receipts from tourism are represented on the supply side and the output/expenditure is shown on the demand side of the model. It measures the relation between the demand and supply of tourism industry in an economy.

3. Computable General Equilibrium Model:

                                                                 Fig 3: A CGE Model

The CGE Model has included all the sectors or units in a single model. This model is utilized when the two models (mentioned above) fails to measure the exact impact of tourism on the economy of a country.

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Task 3

3.1 Concept of sustainability in tourism development

Sustainable tourism development is also known as eco-tourism which focuses on increasing the tourism rate without negatively affecting the environment. It focuses on the environmental development along with the social, economic and other aspects of any country. It requires the contribution and involvement of all the stakeholders to ensure the safety, protection and development of the environment and social factors. Sustainable tourism development provides positive changes and improvements in the conservation of natural resources, culture, traditions, diversity etc. to provide the visitors a wonderful experience of a lifetime. It also creates awareness and encourages others to follow and contribute in the green or eco-tourism.

The tourism industry was affected by the frequent climatic changes, loss of flora and fauna, diversity, low energy etc. Hence; the Olympic Committee decided to incorporate the concept of sustainable tourism in the mega event of Olympics to improve and promote the concept in the world. 

In 1996, the Olympic committee made few amendments in the Olympic charter to bring the attention on the social activities which could increase the sustainable tourism. In developing the 2012 Olympics, the IOC (International Olympics Committee) paid special attention towards the sustainable development.  It was the key issue which was follow2ed throughout the duration of the Games. IOC was responsible to reduce the environmental effects and improve the sustainability.

“Brundland Report of 1987”:In this report the main concentration was to explain the factors influencing the issues as such “global environment and related developments”.The five principles were mentioned in this report which was adopted by the IOC to improve the sustainable development were:

  • Holistic planning was inculcated in the Olympics.
  • Essential ecological processes were secured and protected.
  • Human tradition, culture and natural diversity were protected.
  • Balance between the equality and opportunities were maintained
  • The resources were utilized in the maximum quantity to reduce the wastage and were secured for the future generation.

“Triple Bottom Line, World Travel and tourism council (WTTC)”:In the 2012 Olympics Games the method of “triple bottom line” is implemented. This method was used in analysing the development strategies in connection with “sustainable tourism development along with administrating “Corporate Social Responsibility”. It is essential to implement and follow the sustainable development in all the fields especially in tourism otherwise the tourism industry will be in loss and will vanish with time.

3.2 Factors preventing sustainable tourism development

London Olympiad is a mega event for which thousands of visitors will visit the country. But still there are various factors which prevent the sustainability in the tourism development:

  • Cost: Increasing cost is the main hindrance in maintaining the sustainable tourism. In order to replace the traditional elements with more eco-friendly tools, finances are required. But due to increasing rate, the investments have reduced. Tour operators are also unaware about the benefits of eco-tourism due to which they do not invest in it.
  • Lack of planning:Lack of planning really affects the sustainable development. It is essential to plan effectively each and every activity and step of sustainable tourism development. Otherwise the damages cannot be removed.
  • Lack of shareholders involvement: It is mandatory for each and every stakeholder to participate in the planning of sustainable tourism development. Each person will be able to contribute something in the planning. The co-operation and involvement of each person associated with the tourism is necessary.
  • Priority: Lack of priority also affects the sustainable development as most people prefer short term gain instead of long term benefits. In order to maintain sustainability, patience and investments are required to achieve the long terms goals.
  • Lack of co-ordination: The involvement and co-ordination of government and other regulatory bodies are required for the sustainable development in an economy. Political clash, unrest or lack of co-ordination badly affects the sustainable tourism development.

3.3 Stages in planning for sustainability

IOC has developed a plan to achieve the goal of sustainable tourism development in the London Olympics. Proper planning has been done which comprises of following steps:

  • Assessing the tourism demand and supply:To access the demand and supply is the basic requirement of planning a sustainable development for the Olympics. The demand refers to the no. of people from all over the world who are willing to attend the event. It also includes the local tourists or citizen of UK. After estimating the demand, IOC will estimate the Supply which includes hotels, resorts, restaurants, tourist destinations and transportation. The supplies will be improved or developed as per the demand.
  • Determining the objectives:after estimating the demand and supply, it is important for the IOC to determine the objectives which have to be achieved during the Olympics. The main objective of IOC is to implement and maintain sustainable development in the tourism industry of UK.
  • Evaluating Key Issues:IOC will estimate the key issues which are most important for the implementation of sustainable development. It includes accommodation, infrastructure, financial planning, HR planning, administration and many more.
  • Monitoring Progress:Once the plan has been made it is very essential to evaluate and review the plan as it may happen that some or the other important element has been left. It will help the IOC to review all the activities, goals, objectives and roles to identify any issue and to make improvements accordingly.
  • Marketing and promoting the event:It is the final step which requires the IOC to promote the event and other tourist destinations of UK. For this purpose, It can hire travel agents, operators, guides and other companies to promote the tourism during the Olympics Games.

Task 4

4.1 Methods of resolving a conflict for the wellbeing of a developing tourism destination such as Casa do Campo region in the Dominican Republic.

In west of central Madrid casa de campo is one of the most amazing urban park, In Spain this is one of the most renowned park almost 1750 hectares area is covered by it. The city of zoo and amusement park is the main attractions of the casa de campo park.

Many problems which is faced by the two governments such as the difference between in two countries culture is the major problem which turn in to the conflicts. While on the other hand as we know that the political system of two countries also different so it led the problem of peace because of this factor the tourism level is reduced.  Because of this problem which is faced by the two countries government the revenue of the tourism industry also reduced. While on the other hand there is conflict between two countries tour operators because of different languages.

It is very necessary and important for both countries to get rid of the conflicts and resolved them because they have negative impact on both countries tourism. Because of unrest political system the tour companies’ condition is not safe and secured. To avoid this kind of problems a peaceful communication is required between the both countries government.

4.2 Implications of balancing supply and demand

Demand analysis:In the present business world the consumer’s demands are increasing day by day. A tourism destination demand in the market can be understand with the help of demand analysis. In the demand analysis there are many kinds of things included such as travelling pattern, the destination features, arrival of tourists, and what kinds of market developments are there. At the same time competition in the market can also analysed with the help of demand analysis.

Supply analysis:supply analysis considered that thing which creates the demand of the destination in the market such as accommodation and attractions. The tourism industry importance can be understand and analysed through supply analysis.  While on the other hand human resources management activities in the tourism industry, what kind of transportation and infrastructure the tourism industry has also determined by the supply analysis.

4.3 Moral and ethical issues of enclave tourism of the Hotel resort Casa de Campo

Enclave Tourism: Because of various fun-filled activities the tourists are attracted towards the destinations. All this is done with a motive so that the tourist feels satisfied by enjoying every experience over one place. Given below is the example of enclave tourism. (Answers, n.d.). In the topical and costal region most of the destination of encava toursim are located. Casa de campo is one of the example for it. Casa de campo is one of the beautiful tourist place so most of the part is covered by the enclave  toursim according to the self contained needs. At the same time the main problems which is faced by the toursim that the level of intraction are very less in between local people and toursits and whatever the services is provided by the local people they get very less amount from the toursits.

“Moral and ethical issues regarding enclave tourism of Casa de Campo”

  • “The local communities do not benefit much form the enclave tourism of Casa de Campo as they have very restricted access and the Drug Lords have dominated the entire area this is highly unethical as the local community have no benefit owing to the development of the tourism”.
  • The other issues with the region of Dominion republic were the political unrest, and the acts of violence and theft. It has also been noted that in the past few tourists have complained about the transmission of deadly diseases like AIDS.
  • “The culture and the heritage value of the region of Casa de Campo also have suffered the side effects of tourist’s evasion and now have a transitional culture.”
  • “There is a rise of prostitution and children being involved in prostitution, drug trafficking and crime rate has significantly become very high.”
  • “There have been serious environmental issues and problems because of poor water waste disposal.”
  • “The local community has been benefitted very less by the tourism development”.

Conclusion

This unit 7 sustainable tourism development london olympics assignment has cleared the concept of Sustainable Tourism Development with the help of case study on London Olympics. It has been discussed in the report that sustainable development is very essential to protect the environment, provide a healthy atmosphere for living, improving and increasing the tourism rate in the UK. Every stakeholder including the local residents, and citizens of UK and every other country must contribute in maintaining an ecological balance by adopting the environment friendly methods, products and way of living.

References

ANNUAL TOURISM REPORTING TEMPLATE. (2015). [Online] Available at: http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/sectors/tourism/files/annual.../fr_2008_en.pdf
Dodds, R. (2005). Barriers to the Implementation of Sustainable Tourism Policy in Destinations. School of Management. University of Surrey.
Fanjulbrothers. (n.d.) Educating the world about the Dominican Republic. [Online]
Available at: http://fanjulbrothers.com/
Fuller, D. (1999). Sustainable Marketing: Managerial - Ecological Issues. Sage Publication, Inc.
Godfrey, K. and Clarke, J.  (2009). The Tourism Development Handbook: A Practical Approach to Planning and Marketing .Thomson, London.
IBP. (2002). Dominican Republic Investment and Business Guide. International Business Publication
Ivanov, T. (n.d.). Negative Factors That Hinder Tourism. [Online]. Available from: http://www.ehow.com/info_8198725_negative-factors-hinder-tourism.html
Naturally Nepal. (n.d.). About Nepal. [Online]. Available from: http://welcomenepal.com/promotional/know-nepal/geography/
Rao, M. (2013). Consumer Relationship Management. Global Research Publications.
Redclift, M. (2005). Sustainable Development (1987-2005). An Oxymoron Comes of Age. Wiley InterScience

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