Research Paper On Social Media Addiction Test

Development of Social Media Addiction Test (SMAT17)

Necmi Esgi


The aim of this study was to develop a test for assessing individuals’ social media addiction; and conducting a reliability and validity study of this scale. Sample for this study was composed of 285 college students between the ages of 18 and 25. Reliability coefficients Cronbach’s alpha value was .94 and Spearman Brown value was .91 for our sample. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted to assess construct validity, and confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to assess the validity of the resulted factor structure. 17 items was grouped under 4 factors. Reliability and validity analysis results were in the expected ranges.

Full Text:




  • There are currently no refbacks.

Paper Submission E-mail:

Journal of Education and Training Studies  ISSN 2324-805X (Print)   ISSN 2324-8068 (Online)

Copyright © Redfame Publishing Inc.

To make sure that you can receive messages from us, please add the '' domain to your e-mail 'safe list'. If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox', check your 'bulk mail' or 'junk mail' folders.


1. Boyd D.M., Ellison N.B. Social network sites: Definition, history, and scholarship. J. Comput. Mediat. Commun. 2007;13(1):210–230. doi: 10.1111/j.1083-6101.2007.00393.x.[Cross Ref]

2. Ellison N.B., Steinfield C., Lampe C. The benefits of Facebook “friends”: Social capital and college students' use of online social network sites. J. Comput. Mediat. Commun. 2007;12(4):1143–1168. doi: 10.1111/j.1083-6101.2007.00367.x.[Cross Ref]

3. Cheung C.M., Chiu P., Lee M.K. Online social networks: why do students use Facebook? Comput. Human Behav. 2011;27(4):1337–1343. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2010.07.028.[Cross Ref]

4. Kuss D.J., Griffiths M.D., Karila L., Billieux J. Internet addiction: a systematic review of epidemiological research for the last decade. Curr. Pharm. Des. 2014;20(25):4026–4052. doi: 10.2174/13816128113199990617.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

5. Kuss D.J., Griffiths M.D. Online social networking and addiction-a review of the psychological literature. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health. 2011;8(9):3528–3552. doi: 10.3390/ijerph8093528.[PMC free article][PubMed][Cross Ref]

6. King A.L., Valença A.M., Silva A.C., Sancassiani F., Machado S., Nardi A.E. “Nomophobia”: impact of cell phone use interfering with symptoms and emotions of individuals with panic disorder compared with a control group. Clin. Pract. Epidemol Ment. Health. 2014;10:28–35. doi: 10.2174/1745017901410010028.[PMC free article][PubMed][Cross Ref]

7. King A.L., Valença A.M., Silva A.C., Baczynski T., Carvalho M.R., Nardi A.E. Nomophobia: dependency on virtual enviroments or social phobia? Comput. Human Behav. 2013;29(140-144)

8. Cam E., Isbulan O. A new addiction for teacher candidates: Social networks. Turk. Online J. Educ. Technol. 2012;11(3):14–19.

9. Facebook. Company info: Facebook newsroom: Facebook; 2015. Available from:

10. Nadkarni A., Hofmann S.G. Why do people use Facebook? Pers. Individ. Dif. 2012;52(3):243–249. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2011.11.007.[PMC free article][PubMed][Cross Ref]

11. Wilson R.E., Gosling S.D., Graham L.T. A review of facebook research in the social sciences. Perspect. Psychol. Sci. 2012;7(3):203–220. doi: 10.1177/1745691612442904.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

12. Ryan T., Chester A., Reece J., Xenos S. The uses and abuses of Facebook: A review of Facebook addiction. J. Behav. Addict. 2014;3(3):133–148. doi: 10.1556/JBA.3.2014.016.[PMC free article][PubMed][Cross Ref]

13. Weinstein A., Lejoyeux M. Internet addiction or excessive internet use. Am. J. Drug Alcohol Abuse. 2010;36(5):277–283. doi: 10.3109/00952990.2010.491880.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

14. Caplan S.E. Relations among loneliness, social anxiety, and problematic Internet use. Cyberpsychol. Behav. 2007;10(2):234–242. doi: 10.1089/cpb.2006.9963.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

15. Caplan S.E. Theory and measurement of generaliz ed problematic Internet use: A two-step approach. Comput. Human Behav. 2010;26(5):1089–1097. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2010.03.012.[Cross Ref]

16. Griffiths M.D. A 'components' model of addiction within a biopsychosocial framework. J. Subst. Abuse. 2005;10(4):191–197.

17. Griffiths M.D. Social networking addiction: Emerging themes and issues. J. Addict. Res. Ther. 2013;4:e118. doi: 10.4172/2155-6105.1000e118.[Cross Ref]

18. LaRose R., Kim J., Peng W. Social Networking: Addictive, Compulsive, Problematic, or Just Another Media Habit? In: Papacharissi Z., editor. A networked self: Identity, community, and culture on social network sites. New York: Taylor & Francis; 2010.

19. LaRose R., Mastro D., Eastin M.S. Understanding Internet usage: A social-cognitive approach to uses and gratifications. Soc. Sci. Comput. Rev. 2001;19(4):395–413. doi: 10.1177/089443930101900401.[Cross Ref]

20. Elphinston R.A., Noller P. Time to face it! Facebook intrusion and the implications for romantic jealousy and relationship satisfaction. Cyberpsychol. Behav. Soc. Netw. 2011;14(11):631–635. doi: 10.1089/cyber.2010.0318.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

21. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, VA: APA; 2013.

22. Griffiths M.D. Facebook addiction: concerns, criticism, and recommendations-a response to Andreassen and colleagues. Psychol. Rep. 2012;110(2):518–520. doi: 10.2466/01.07.18.PR0.110.2.518-520.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

23. Griffiths M.D., Kuss D.J., Demetrovics Z. Social networking addiction: An overview of preliminary findings. In: Rosenberg K.P., Feder C., editors. Behavioral addictions: Criteria, evidence, and treatment. London: Academic Press; 2014. pp. 119–141. [Cross Ref]

24. Young K. Facebook Addiction Disorder? Bradford, PA, USA: The Center for Online Addiction; 2009.

25. Summers A. Facebook Addiction Disorder - The 6 Symptoms of F.A.D: Social Times; 2011. Available from: socialtimes/facebook-addiction-disorder-the-6-symptoms-of-f-a-d/61408?red=st .

26. Pies R. Should DSM-V Designate “Internet Addiction” a Mental Disorder? Psychiatry (Edgmont) 2009;6(2):31–37.[PMC free article][PubMed]

27. Song I., LaRose R., Eastin M.S., Lin C.A. Internet gratifications and internet addiction: on the uses and abuses of new media. Cyberpsychol. Behav. 2004;7(4):384–394. doi: 10.1089/cpb.2004.7.384.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

28. Vasalou A., Joinson A.N., Courvoisier D. Cultural differences, experience with social networks and the nature of “true commitment” in Facebook. Int. J. Hum. Comput. Stud. 2010;68(10):719–728. doi: 10.1016/j.ijhcs.2010.06.002.[Cross Ref]

29. Denti L., Barbopuolos I., Nilsson I., et al. Sweden's largest Facebook study. Gothenburg: University of Gothenburg; 2012.

30. Abhijit N. Facebook Addiction. USA: Buzzle; 2012 Available from: . 2012.

31. Hofmann W., Vohs K.D., Baumeister R.F. What people desire, feel conflicted about, and try to resist in everyday life. Psychol. Sci. 2012;23(6):582–588. doi: 10.1177/0956797612437426.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

32. Wolniczak I., Cáceres-DelAguila J.A., Palma-Ardiles G., Arroyo K.J., Solís-Visscher R., Paredes-Yauri S., Mego-Aquije K., Bernabe-Ortiz A. Association between Facebook dependence and poor sleep quality: a study in a sample of undergraduate students in Peru. PLoS One. 2013;8(3):e59087. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0059087.[PMC free article][PubMed][Cross Ref]

33. Lee Y.L., Verma R.K., Yadav H., Barua A. Health impacts of Facebook usage and mobile texting among undergraduate dental students: it’s time to understand the difference between usage and an excessive use. Eur. J. Dent. Educ. 2015 doi: 10.1111/eje.12164. [Epub ahead of print] [PubMed][Cross Ref]

34. Khumsri J., Yingyeun R., Mereerat Manwong, Hanprathet N, Phanasathit M. Prevalence of facebook addiction and related factors among thai high school students. J. Med. Assoc. Thai. 2015;98(Suppl. 3):S51–S60.[PubMed]

35. Shaffer H.J., LaPlante D.A., LaBrie R.A., Kidman R.C., Donato A.N., Stanton M.V. Toward a syndrome model of addiction: multiple expressions, common etiology. Harv. Rev. Psychiatry. 2004;12(6):367–374. doi: 10.1080/10673220490905705.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

36. Echeburúa E., de Corral P. Addiction to new technologies and to online social networking in young people: A new challenge. Adicciones. 2010;22(2):91–95.[PubMed]

37. Xu H., Tan B.C. International Conference on Information Systems. Florida, USA: ICIS; 2012. Why do I keep checking Facebook: Effects of Message Characteristics on the Formation of Social Network Services Addiction. .

38. Tamir D.I., Mitchell J.P. Disclosing information about the self is intrinsically rewarding. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 2012;109(21):8038–8043. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1202129109.[PMC free article][PubMed][Cross Ref]

39. Chen H.T., Kim Y. Problematic use of social network sites: the interactive relationship between gratifications sought and privacy concerns. Cyberpsychol. Behav. Soc. Netw. 2013;16(11):806–812. doi: 10.1089/cyber.2011.0608.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

40. Chen G.M. Tweet this: A uses and gratifications perspective on how active Twitter use gratifies a need to connect with others. Comput. Human Behav. 2011;27(2):755–762. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2010.10.023.[Cross Ref]

41. Schultz W. Getting formal with dopamine and reward. Neuron. 2002;36(2):241–263. doi: 10.1016/S0896-6273(02)00967-4.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

42. Panek E.T., Nardis Y., Konrath S. Mirror or megaphone? How relationships between narcissim and social networking site use differ on Facebook and Twitter. Comput. Human Behav. 2013;29(5):2004–2012. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2013.04.012.[Cross Ref]

43. Young K.S. Internet addiction: the emergence of a new clinical disorder. Cyberpsychol. Behav. 2009;1(3):237–244. doi: 10.1089/cpb.1998.1.237.[Cross Ref]

44. Spada M.M. An overview of problematic internet use. Addict. Behav. 2014;39(1):3–6. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2013.09.007.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

45. Li W., O’Brien J.E., Snyder S.M., Howard M.O. Characteristics of internet addiction/pathological internet use in U.S. university students: a qualitative-method investigation. PLoS One. 2015;10(2):e0117372. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0117372.[PMC free article][PubMed][Cross Ref]

46. Widyanto L., McMurran M. The psychometric properties of the internet addiction test. Cyberpsychol. Behav. 2004;7(4):443–450. doi: 10.1089/cpb.2004.7.443.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

47. Boysan M., Kuss D.J., Barut Y., Ayköse N., Güleç M., Özdemir O. Psychometric properties of the Turkish version of the Internet Addiction Test (IAT). Addict. Behav. 2015:S0306-4603(15): 30013-7.[PubMed]

48. Sofiah S., Omar S.Z. J. B, Osman MN. Facebook addiction among female university students. Revista De Administratie Publica Si Politici Sociale. 2011;2(7):95–109.

49. Andreassen C.S., Torsheim T., Brunborg G.S., Pallesen S. Development of a facebook addiction scale. Psychol. Rep. 2012;110(2):501–517. doi: 10.2466/02.09.18.PR0.110.2.501-517.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

50. Lee Z.W., Cheung C.M., Thadani D.R. An invesrigation into the problematic use of facebook. 45th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences; 2012 Jan 4-7; Maui, Hawaii: IEEE;; IEEE Computer Society; 2012. pp. 1768–76.

51. Balakrishnan V., Shamim A. Malaysian Facebookers: Motives and addictive behaviours unraveled. Comput. Human Behav. 2013;29(4):1342–1349. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2013.01.010.[Cross Ref]

52. Koc M., Gulyagci S. Facebook addiction among Turkish college students: the role of psychological health, demographic, and usage characteristics. Cyberpsychol. Behav. Soc. Netw. 2013;16(4):279–284. doi: 10.1089/cyber.2012.0249.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

53. Hong F., Huang D., Lin H., Chiu S. Analysis of the psychological traits, Facebook usage, and Facebook addiction model of Taiwanese university students. Telemat. Inform. 2014;31(4):597–606. doi: 10.1016/j.tele.2014.01.001.[Cross Ref]

54. Giannakos M.N., Chorianopoulos K., Gioyopoulos K., Vlamos P. Using Facebook out of habit. Behav. Inf. Technol. 2013;32(6):594–602. doi: 10.1080/0144929X.2012.659218.[Cross Ref]

55. Vishwanath A. Habitual facebook use and its impact on getting deceived on social media. J. Comput. Mediat. Commun. 2015;20(1):83–98. doi: 10.1111/jcc4.12100.[Cross Ref]

0 Thoughts to “Research Paper On Social Media Addiction Test

Leave a comment

L'indirizzo email non verrà pubblicato. I campi obbligatori sono contrassegnati *