Miscellaneous Essays About Education

I believe that every student is different but special in their own way. Every student should be instilled with good values so that they can grow up to be good valuable men and women. They deserve to be educated in a positive environment where they feel safe, comfortable, motivated and engaged in their learning. As an educator, I will work hard to guide and help prepare life-long learners so that they can choose their future decisions wisely. I feel education is very important in every aspect and the focus should be on more than just the subjects being taught. I think teaching involves one to go above and beyond the basics. Since each student is unique, one may require more than the other so putting focus on the student’s needs are just as important. It is my belief that all students have the ability to learn with assistance. I am a true believer of open communication because students need to feel they can come and talk to their teacher whenever they need to.

The main purpose of education is to help students gain the knowledge and skills so that they will be able to function in society. Students need to be provided with the necessary skills so that they can learn to become productive citizens. There are many advantages that are associated with receiving an education. Students will be able to contribute to their community and help make it a better place to live. Education basically helps shape society because it helps students learn to become more sociable and helps them develop relationships with their peers. Students will be more qualified for different job positions if they have a good solid education. Education is vital to each student’s life, therefore, by working hard to provide the best instruction possible will help train students to become future leaders and will lead to a better life.
Worldview and Philosophy of Life
I think each of us perceive the world differently because we all are different and experience different things in life. Life is basically what you make of it and you’re in control of your own actions. I think if you always view the world as being negative then you will not be happy in life. We all know there are good and bad things happening all over the world so I think it is important for us to work together to try and make the world a better place. We learn from our surroundings and life requires every person to make choices and consequences follow those choices. This is why it is so important for each person to choose their decisions wisely and do what is right. The actions a person displays help others determine what type of person they are so we should always display good attitudes and behavior. The world is full of challenges but if you work hard you can overcome them. Sometimes I feel when we go through certain things we are being tested. No matter what I am going through or how bad the situation seems I know that God is in control and he will handle it because my faith lies in him. Truly believing in this is what helps me get through life on a daily basis.
Having a loving, supportive family and living a happy life is something that is necessary for me and I am very appreciative of it. Showing others you care for them and that your there for them is what makes life worth living. Striving to pursue your goals and dreams is something else that makes a huge difference in a person’s life. It gives people a reason to strive harder and when that dream or goal is achieved it’s the best feeling ever. I want to succeed in life so failure is not an option. I have to keep striving to make my dreams come true because I am responsible for making that happen. In regards to me, life is about being happy, loving God, people, and helping to make a difference in the lives of others.
Philosophy of Schools & Learning

Education is essential to every student’s life as well as their future. Students can have a prosperous life by receiving a good quality education. My thoughts are that students need to learn from the books along with other various materials just as I did while growing up. The classroom curriculum should be decided by their teacher and the teacher should set clear goals as to what is expected from the students. Students should work hard to achieve their goals because it will certainly be worth it in the end. According to essentialism, ‘Schools should not radically try to reshape society but schools should transmit traditional moral values and intellectual knowledge that students need to become model citizens’ (knight, 2006). The school should stress the importance of values because some children are not taught these at home. Teaching children good values helps build their character and helps them become respectable people. In regards to education, I think society is important because this is a place where we all live so we should work to make it a better place.
Classroom management is something else that helps the classroom run smoothly. Students need to be taught discipline and respect because it is important for them to respect themselves so they can learn to respect others. The teacher needs to be firm and enforce the rules to all the students because displaying immoral behavior disrupts learning for everyone. According to B.F. Skinner, ‘rewards motivate students to learn material even if they do not fully understand why it will have value in their futures’ (Sadker, 2005). Students do deserve some type of recognition and praise when they have acted and done what they were supposed to. Furthermore, even though curriculum is a major part of the learning process, educating students goes beyond subject matter because sometimes students have issues that interfere with their learning. This is why the teacher has to find out what the student is lacking and try to help the student successfully achieve what they need to learn.
Instructional Practice
Learning involves a person acquiring the knowledge or skills that is being taught to them. This can occur through methods such as observation, listening or through hands on learning. Some things that cause students to learn is staying focused because it helps them to understand and learn the content being introduced to them. Experiencing or going through certain things can also lead to learning. When student’s minds are stimulated this causes them to think critically and leads to learning whatever their teacher may be teaching. As a teacher I will encourage participation because this is another way for students to learn. One of the most important things I think a teacher should do is build rapport with their students because this will help them learn what qualities their student’s possess.
As far as the classroom, I will do my best to make sure it is organized so that everything flows smoothly. Some strategies that I will implement in my class is the use of visuals and many other hands on activities. Since students learn differently they need to be provided with a variety of ways to learn. I will do my best to make my lessons interesting because this helps motivate students and engage them more in the learning process. Different types of technology will be used to help aid in the learning process. ‘Research literature throughout the past decade has shown that technology can enhance literacy development, impact language acquisition, provide greater access to information, support learning, motivate students, and enhance their self-esteem’ (O’Hara & Pritchard, 2014). I will provide challenging assignments and will let my students work in groups so they can build social skills and also learn things from each other. Open discussions will be used because each student needs to feel comfortable sharing their ideas and among others in the class. In my class I will allow students to be involved in decision making regarding different assignments. I will use assessments to monitor my students learning and will provide prompt feedback on assignments. I will do this because I need to know if they are understanding and if not I can work on alternative ways to help them understand.
What I hope to accomplish by using these strategies is that each student will be able to successfully learn to the best of their ability. It is my hope that all of their basic subject skills improve and they can leave the class with more knowledge than they came in with. I want my students to grow into the habit of loving to read along with learning. I want them to build critical thinking skills and encourage them that they can do anything if they believe, strive hard enough and put their minds to it. I want them to think of me as a positive role model and someone who they can always come talk to. My goal is to help guide them down the right path so that they can grow up and be responsible individuals and life long learners.
Teacher-Learner Relationships
Students have many responsibilities inside and outside of school. The most important role is for them to come to class ready to learn. They need to attend class daily because they will get behind and it is hard to catch up if they are constantly absent. Arriving on time is important because missing parts of the instruction can lead to not understanding the assignments. Students need to stay focused and on task so that test, classroom and homework assignments can be completed accurately and on time. Students need to come to class prepared and bring all the necessary supplies to class to do classroom assignments and projects. They are to participate in classroom discussions and activities.
Teachers have many different roles in the classroom they lead, train and guide students. They are responsible for supplying students with the necessary information to help them learn the subject matter. They prepare lesson plans that is used as a guide to teach the students. They assess the student’s weaknesses and their strengths along with preparing them for test. They job is to set clear goals and expectations for their students so that there will be no misunderstanding. One of their main task is to focus on how their student is achieving. Classroom management is the teacher’s responsibility because if the classroom is not managed learning is disrupted. They supervise students and enforce rules for the classroom to make sure the students behave and treat each other with respect. They grade papers and meet with parents for teacher conferences to provide progress on their children. They make sure the class is a safe, nurturing environment for the students to learn. I think teachers must be role models for their students to follow and show them how they should act so this will follow them throughout their life inside and outside of school. Teacher’s work does not stop when they leave school they still have things to do outside of the class that relates to them preparing activities and lessons for their students. Furthermore, they mentor and challenge students to become better learners and leaders for the future.
When you have diverse students in your class and there always will be, it is really just a way of thinking that all students are different but in their own way. This could be due to their abilities, race, culture, background, belief or just by their personal differences. ‘It should be clear, then, that ‘diversity’ indicates a wide range of backgrounds and experiences that contribute to our students’ uniqueness. ‘Diversity’ does not simply refer to race. Thus, it is accurate to assert that all classrooms are a combination of diverse learners. If every student is unique, then every classroom is diverse. The next step is to identify how to best help all students live up to their potential as unique individuals’ (Okun, 2012). Even though students are different, teachers still are responsible for developing ways to meet each of their needs. Differentiated instruction can be used for diverse learners. Their content needs to be delivered in various ways such as through lectures, handouts, hands on activities, or even videos. Teachers also have to use strategies to make sure the students understand what they’re working to teach them. Technology is also a good tool to use to help students learn. This enhances their learning because they can use it to build new skills and for practice. The important thing to remember is that they all learn differently because some are hands on learners while others may be auditory or visual. Teachers have to work hard to try and meet the needs of all their students. All students deserve the opportunity to learn and to be treated fairly no matter the differences. Teachers must have high expectations for all of their students and strive to help them reach their goals.
One advantage of being diverse is when students are in the same class with other students they can learn from each other’s differences. Some students can adjust to a different environment quickly but it may be hard for some others to. Teachers face many challenges when providing instruction in a diverse classroom. This is why it is important for the teacher to remember when planning activities for the students to consider all their differences such as their background or culture.
There are many school factors that affect the success of culturally diverse students ‘ the school’s atmosphere and overall attitudes toward diversity, involvement of the community, and culturally responsive curriculum, to name a few. Of all of these factors, the personal and academic relationships between teachers and their students may be the most influential. (Teacher Vision, 2015)
This is where the teacher comes in and provide the upmost support to try and cater to the needs of the students. In a diverse classroom it is not only the teacher that faces challenges but the students as well. This is why building that relationship and working together can help both the teacher and student which can lead to academic success.

Issues of Importance
Growing up I always knew I wanted to work to help children in some way but I was not sure where I would end up in the process. My hopes are much more than helping them learn to grow up and be successful students but I want to help make them better people. I am sure many people would say my field of choice which is Special Education would be most difficult but I say it takes patience, caring and loving what you do to help these students learn because they truly deserve it just like any other student. It is important to make students feel welcome and open to share ideas along with including them in all activities.
There are several things that I feel are important to my philosophy of education. Since the classroom is a place where students will be daily I think classroom management is imperative for learning to take place. When I was a student I know I wanted to be in a positive environment where I could concentrate to learn. Distractions causes issues for everyone and prevents learning from occurring. Curriculum is important because it is the core of learning and this must be delivered in an understanding manner because this is what helps the students learn. I certainly want to make sure my students are understanding what I am teaching so using the appropriate methods to check for understanding is necessary. If students do not understand then the teacher may need to find a better way to deliver the information. If something else is the reason then the teacher must work on finding a solution.
Parents play a huge part in their child’s education. The first place children start learning at is in the home. Parent’s jobs are to help encourage and support their child’s learning. Most of the time children look at their parents as role models so it is important for parents to stress the importance of education. Parents need to be involved in their child’s education and that means making sure homework is completed, reading with their child and just basically working with them at home to help with improvement. The teacher and parents need to work together so that they are both in agreeance on things and in making sure the child is doing what they are supposed to.
One issue that I think is critical in education is standardized testing. There are advantages and disadvantages of this type of testing but I think they should be eliminated because it causes too much stress on the students and the teachers. I know they want to make sure the students are learning and the teachers are doing their jobs but I think something else should be done. I really do not understand how students are able to concentrate when taking this test because I am sure there are some who are so worried about not passing it or being promoted to the next grade. For example, ‘Many students, particularly those experiencing reading and/or learning problems, have experienced frustration while taking standardized tests. Their subsequent academic performance is not necessarily representative of actual abilities’ (Rakes & McWilliams, 1978).
In regards to this type of testing, I just think another alternative should be sought and one that is less stressful for everyone. Maybe it would be a good idea for schools to use the benchmark assessments, classroom work and homework to check for student performance. This is just how I feel about the situation in regards to what I have saw my own children go through when it was time to take the end of year test. I think there are many more challenges that schools face, for instance some children get bullied while others maybe struggling with learning. As teachers we just have to work hard to see that these issues get resolved and work to help them reach their academic goals.
In conclusion, getting a good education is imperative in today’s society. I truly feel the main purpose of education is to help educate students so that they will be able to function in society. I think if you are a good effective teacher who cares about your students then everything else will fall into place such as them growing up and taking charge of their own life. Students are with each teacher for one year before moving to the next grade but that one year can lead to many accomplishments and memories that the student will carry on throughout their life. Students need a good education for various reasons and one being to obtain a good paying job. Getting educated can help prepare you for this job because you will definitely need to have good reading and math skills in which you learn in school. We also need it so we will be able to think critically to solve problems we may have throughout our lives. As mothers and teachers we should want our children to grow up to be good citizens and future leaders. Mothers and teachers have a big impact on a student’s education because both are responsible for helping the student academically achieve. When I think of life and education I think ‘the sky is the limit’ meaning if you believe, work hard and put your mind to it you can do and achieve anything.

Rake, T. A., & McWilliams, L., (1978). Bridging the gap: Two Alternatives to Standardized Testing. The English Journal, Vol. 67, No. 7 (Oct., 1978), pp. 46-50

Teacher Vision, (2015). Strategies for Teaching Culturally Diverse Students. Retrieved June 25, 2015 from https://www.teachervision.com/teaching-methods/resource/6039.html

Knight G. R., (2015). Philosophy & Education: An Introduction in Christian Perspective (4th Edition). Berrien Springs, MI: Andrews University Press.

Sadker, M. P., & Sadker, D., M. (2005). Teachers, Schools and Society.7th Edition, Retrieved June 26, 2015 from http://highered.mheducation.com/sites/0072877723/student_view0/chapter9/index.html

Okun, M., (2012). How Does Student Diversity Affect Teachers’ Priorities in Differentiating Instruction? International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Vol. 2 No. 12 Special Issue

O’Hara, S. & Pritchard, R., (2014). What is the Impact of Technology on Learning? Retrieved July 3, 2014 from http://www.education.com/reference/article/what-impact-technology-learning/

Information for Authors

CBE—Life Sciences Education (LSE) is an online, quarterly journal owned and published by the American Society for Cell Biology (ASCB) in editorial partnership with the Genetics Society of America. The journal publishes original, previously unpublished, peer-reviewed articles on research and evaluation related to life sciences education, as well as articles about evidence-based biology instruction at all levels. The ASCB believes that biology learning encompasses diverse fields, including math, chemistry, physics, engineering, and computer science, as well as the interdisciplinary intersections of biology with these fields. One goal of the journal is to encourage teachers and instructors to view teaching and learning the way scientists view their research, as an intellectual undertaking that is informed by systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of data related to student learning. Target audiences include those involved in education in K–12 schools, two-year colleges, four-year colleges, science centers and museums, universities, and professional schools, including graduate students and postdoctoral researchers. All published articles are available freely online without subscription. In addition, published articles are indexed in PubMed and available through PubMed Central.

LSE is published online four times a year: March (Spring issue), June (Summer issue), September (Fall issue), and December (Winter issue). Submissions are accepted at any time. Articles are assigned to particular issues by the editors. Articles that have been edited and typeset before an issue is scheduled for release may be published in advance. Through this “continuous publication” mechanism, issues fill gradually until they are complete. To be included in an issue, manuscripts must be accepted in final form at least two months prior to the publication date.

Determining the Suitability of a Manuscript for LSE

Articles.LSE is a venue for biologists to disseminate their educational innovations to others who teach biology, as well as for dissemination of biology education research that is designed to generate more generalizable, basic knowledge about biology education. Thus, LSE publishes two types of articles: descriptions of research that breaks new ground in understanding biology teaching and learning and descriptions of the implementation and evaluation of educational innovations in the life sciences. Regardless of the nature of the work, articles should offer a logical, evidence-based chain of reasoning about the design and methods used to generate the findings and support the conclusions.

The design and interpretation of studies submitted for publication in LSE should fit the goals of the work. Articles about biology education research should describe how the study was designed and conducted to yield generalizable claims and should be applicable beyond a single course or program. Authors of this type of article are encouraged to draw from the diverse social science theories, methods, and findings to inform their work, and to clearly define terms and approaches that may be unfamiliar to a biologist audience.

Articles about educational innovations should describe the systematic collection and analysis of educational data and include rigorous reflection about the results with the aim of improving instruction. Such work can be limited to a single course or program, but the educational innovation should be sufficiently novel and the results sufficiently compelling to prompt other instructors to adapt or adopt it for use with their own students. Authors of this type of article must review relevant literature to demonstrate how a particular innovation is unique compared with previously published work. 

Instructors interested in publishing their educational innovations in LSE should give careful thought to how they will assess student learning or other desired outcomes. Answering three questions can help guide the process of assessment: 1) What are your instructional or programmatic goals? 2) What should learners know or be able to do if you met your goals? 3) How can you measure or otherwise document whether learners know or are able to do what you intend? Documentation of intended outcomes can be accomplished through systematic analysis of data collected through diverse approaches, such as pretest/posttest, interviews, focus groups, surveys, or performance on coursework, including exams, papers, or lab reports. Authors should present their innovations in the same way that life scientists present their research: claims regarding efficacy must be supported by evidence. Articles that lack adequate assessment, assessment instruments, descriptions of assessment methods, or references to published assessment instruments or methods will be returned to authors without review.

All articles must include collection, analysis, and interpretation of educational data, which can be quantitative and/or qualitative in nature. In addition, LSE articles should: 1) address a clear educational problem or education research question, 2) demonstrate clear alignment among the problem or question being addressed, the design of the study or educational innovation, the claims being made, and the evidence used to support those claims, 3) describe how results are applicable or transferable to other settings, 4) be relevant to a defined audience of educators, and 5) make reference to related educational literature. Articles should include a formal Methods section, and any assessment tools (surveys, tests, assignments, interview or focus group questions, etc.) should be included as they were administered to participants as supplemental materials. The source of the assessment tool(s) should be described, including the rationale behind the selection or design of the tool(s). The online nature of the journal facilitates the inclusion of instructional materials such as syllabi, assignments, rubrics, laboratory protocols, or professional development guidelines. Science procedures, protocols, and results that are important for understanding how instruction was accomplished should be included as supplemental materials rather than in the body of the manuscript.

The following references may be useful for thinking about the design and conduct of biology education studies:

-Schneider B, Carnoy M, Kilpatrick J, Schmidt WH, & Shavelson R. (2007). Estimating causal effects: Using experimental and observational designs. American Educational Research Association: Washington DC.

-Shavelson RJ, & Towne L, Eds. (2002) Scientific research in education. National Academies Press: Washington DC.

-Singer SR, Nielsen NR, & Schweingruber HA, Eds. (2012). Discipline-based education research: Understanding and improving learning in undergraduate science and engineering. National Academies Press: Washington DC.

-Slater SJ, Slater TF, Heyer I, & Bailey JM. (2015). Discipline-based education research – A guide for scientists, 2nd Edition. Pono Publishing: Hilo, Hawai’i.

-Weimer, M. (2006). Enhancing scholarly work on teaching and learning. Jossey-Bass: San Francisco.

Essays. LSE publishes essays on timely and important topics related to biology teaching and learning, including assessment methods, student engagement, curriculum innovations, K–20 continuum, and other topics. Essays are framed by personal experience and provide specific examples, but describe a problem or approach of general interest and may be synthetic across the work of many individuals. Appropriate foci for essays include reviews of current practices, policies, or research that have implications for biology teaching and learning, or personal perspectives on issues that are provocative or would otherwise be of widespread interest. The problem or approach should be presented within a scholarly context, citing references and resources that address the topic. If claims are to be made, there should be evidence from the literature or the authors’ own work. Although it is not a requirement, essays can include ideas for assessment or future research as appropriate. Manuscripts that include claims about the efficacy of an instructional approach should be submitted as articles. Descriptions of studies with preliminary or very limited data will not be considered.

LSE also publishes Research Methods essays that offer scholarly and practical advice on biology education research design and methods. Research Methods essays should be written as instructional pieces, identifying common and significant methodological issues. These essays should focus on a single topic, treating it with sufficient depth for readers to understand and be able to take action on the issue, while appealing to a broad audience of biology education scholars and education-interested biologists. Authors are encouraged to be creative in format. For example, Research Methods essays could be scholarly reviews punctuated by practical advice, or in-depth discussions of articles that illustrate exemplary methodological practice. The essays should be concise and accurate yet approachable, clearly defining technical terms and using biology-friendly analogies and examples to illustrate key points. Co-authorship by social scientists and biologists is encouraged.

Meeting Reports. The journal publishes occasional reports of meetings related to education in the life sciences. Such reports should not merely describe a meeting, but should contain material that can be immediately used by the reader. Examples include, but are not limited to, the following:  announcement and description of an ongoing dialogue with an invitation and ways to participate; report of new findings described at the meeting with access to the underlying materials via citations or web resources; report of new findings based on the meeting dialogue per se; compilation and synthetic description of accessible resources described or discussed at the meeting, complemented by clear recommendations for action or next steps; creation of new opportunities to participate in planned workshops, online dialogues, or the like. Meeting reports received through the normal online submission process will be judged on the basis of their relevance and interest for the broad readership of the journal. Prospective authors are encouraged to contact the editors in advance to discuss the suitability of a given meeting report.

Letters to the Editor. A goal of LSE is to stimulate dialogue. LSE invites readers to make use of the Reader Comment function associated with each publication or submit Letters to the Editor. LSE requires that letters are directly responsive to an article published in the journal or that they bring a new or under-recognized issue to the attention of readers in a way that is informed by the inclusion of relevant data or references to the literature. Letters received through the normal online submission process will be reviewed by the Editor-in-Chief and published at her discretion. Appropriate topics for letters include commentary on education-related articles in this or other journals as well as opinions on more general topics of concern to the readership.

Features. Articles listed under the heading of “Features” are by invitation only. Authors interested in contributing to a feature should contact the editor.

Announcements.LSE accepts noncommercial announcements of meetings, workshops, and conferences and of funding opportunities and fellowships open to all.

Peer-Review Process

All submitted manuscripts and educational materials are subject to peer review. After a manuscript has been submitted to LSE, the Editor-in-Chief selects an editorial board member to guide the paper through the review process. Editorial board members select two reviewers to submit written evaluations. The board member will assess the peer reviews and determine whether the submission will be accepted as is, accepted with suggested revisions, temporarily rejected with suggestions for improvements before resubmission, or rejected with reasons explaining this decision. The corresponding author can usually expect an initial response within four weeks.

License and Publishing Agreement

Authors are required to sign a License and Publishing Agreement when a manuscript is accepted for publication. Under the terms of that agreement, authors retain copyright but grant the ASCB a perpetual license to publish the manuscript. Authors also grant to the general public the nonexclusive right to copy, distribute, or display the manuscript subject to the terms of the Creative Commons–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

ASCB Policy on Research Misconduct by Authors

By submitting a paper to LSE, an author acknowledges that he or she is subject to the ASCB Policy on Research Misconduct by Authors. The policy is posted at www.ascb.org/files/research_misconduct.pdf.

Institutional Review Board Approval

Manuscripts reporting on studies involving human subjects must include explicit assurance that the research reported was approved by a local Institutional Review Board (IRB), including an IRB review number, unless the research is exempt from such review according to U.S. Department of Education guidelines. If authors’ institutions do not have an IRB, this assurance should be provided by an individual who oversees responsible and ethical conduct of research and scholarship. Studies conducted outside the U.S. should abide by their institutional and national policy for ethical and responsible conduct of research on human subjects, including education research, and cite this policy in the Methods section of manuscripts. Prospective authors are advised that permission must be obtained in advance.

Guidelines for Preparing Articles, Essays, and Features

General Instructions. The following activities prior to submission of a manuscript to LSE do not constitute prior publication and do not preclude consideration of the manuscript by LSE: publication of a short abstract; presentation of data at a professional meeting or in a Webcast of such a meeting; or posting of a manuscript on an author's personal website, in an online institutional repository, or on a freely accessible preprint server such as arXiv or bioRxiv. Publication of a paper in the proceedings of a scientific meeting generally does constitute prior publication. Authors should include copies of all closely related publications with their submission to LSE. A closely related publication is one that is in press or has been submitted elsewhere and includes some or all of the data presented in the manuscript submitted to LSE.

The text should be written in clear, concise, and grammatical English. Manuscripts ordinarily begin with an overview of how the work presented is relevant to the classroom, laboratory, or curriculum and what student outcomes are expected. Whenever possible, incorporate materials by citing relevant publications, without repeating already published works. Manuscript files must be submitted in .doc, .docx, or .rtf format.

Tables and illustrations should convey information effectively and must be uploaded separately. Graphs and figures should be provided digitally as separate TIF or EPS files. Authors are encouraged to take advantage of the online nature of LSE. Video, audio, databases, images, animations, molecular structures, and other electronic resources may be linked as supplemental material for further consideration by readers.

International authors may wish to consider using an editorial service, such as ScienceDocs (www.sciencedocs.com), EditBIOMED ( www.editbiomed.com), The Medical Editor (www.themedicaleditor.com), American Journal Experts (www.journalexperts.com), Editage (www.editage.com), Bioscience Writers (www.biosciencewriters.com), Cognyte Ltd.  (www.cognyte.co.uk), Squirrel Scribe (www.squirrelscribe.com), or Wordvice (www.wordvice.com/). LSE does not endorse any particular service, and cannot be held responsible for the services they provide.

Length Guidelines. The following manuscript submission lengths are intended to aid authors in preparing their manuscripts; however, submissions outside these ranges will be considered.

Articles: 30,000–60,000 characters (with spaces), or 5–10 journal “pages”; typically do not exceed 20 journal pages, or 120,000 characters.

Essays: 30,000–50,000 characters (with spaces), or 5–8 journal “pages”; typically do not exceed 10 journal pages, or 60,000 characters.

Features: 6,000–12,000 characters (with spaces), or 1–2 journal “pages.”

Letters: 3,000–6,000 characters (with spaces), or up to half a journal “page.”

Cover Letter. Authors should submit a cover letter from the corresponding author stating that the work is being submitted exclusively to LSE and indicating why it is appropriate for the journal. If there is a connection between an author and a commercial product being used or reported, full disclosure is required in the cover letter and appropriate statements should be included in the manuscript. (See "Title Page" below.) Authors are invited to suggest monitoring editors and reviewers (please include institution and email address). For article submissions, authors are encouraged to indicate whether their work is best described as research that aims to yield new insights about biology teaching and learning or as the implementation and evaluation of educational innovations in the life sciences.

Title Page. Page 1 should include the title of the manuscript, the type of manuscript being submitted (e.g., article, essay, feature, letter to the editor, response), the number of characters in the manuscript, a shortened running title (not to exceed 42 characters and spaces), and the names and affiliations (including department, institution, city, state, and zip code) of all authors in the order in which they should appear. List the corresponding author separately with complete postal and email address and telephone and fax numbers. Keywords should also appear on page 1. Include at least five keywords selected from the text of the article. If possible, include a keyword that indicates the target learners (primary, secondary, undergraduate, graduate, general public, etc.).

If one or more of the authors of a research paper that assesses the effectiveness of a product or curriculum was also involved in producing the product or curriculum, readers need to be fully aware of this potential conflict of interest. Therefore, any potential conflicts of interest should be clearly stated on the title page of the manuscript. The author and the product should be identified, and a statement included that no promotion of a particular product to the exclusion of other similar products should be construed. This will be noted under the byline if the manuscript is accepted for publication.

Abstract. Page 2 should contain the abstract, which should be no more than 200 words long and should summarize the important points in the manuscript.

Manuscript Text. The text of the paper should begin on page 3. LSE follows the style guidelines of the Council of Biology Editors Style Manual. For chemical nomenclature, follow the Subject Index of Chemical Abstracts. Capitalize trade names and give manufacturer names and addresses. Do not include figures or tables within the body of the manuscript. A format of Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, and References is encouraged, but other formats may be more appropriate for some topics. Manuscripts should include line and page numbers.

Accessing Materials. Describe how to access new educational materials if the study or use of such materials is the subject of the paper. If materials are online, provide a URL to the material. Any registration requirements or agreements inherent in the use of the materials should be described. If there are no online materials, simply state “No additional materials available online.” For other new educational materials presented in the manuscript, authors should describe how readers can access the materials, what format is available (e.g., DVD, CD-ROM, PDF files, and html pages), how to request copies, and if there are any costs. LSE encourages provision of materials on a nonprofit basis, but recognizes that this is not always feasible. Please contact LSE with any questions regarding this policy.

Acknowledgments. Identify financial sources and other sources of support for the research being reported in the manuscript.

References. Place the reference list immediately following the manuscript text (beginning on a new page). LSE makes use of reference and citation formats stipulated by the most recent version of the American Psychological Society (“APA format”). Only published articles or manuscripts accepted for publication can be listed in the Reference section. Most reference management software (e.g., EndNote, Mendeley, Zotero, etc.) have a setting for APA format. APA format should be used for the references and citations only; APA format for the entire paper is not necessary or desirable. Unpublished results, including personal communications and submitted manuscripts, should be cited as such in the text. Personal communications must be accompanied by permission letters unless they are from the authors' own work. 

Example citations:

Journal article with two authors: Seidel, S. B., & Tanner, K. D. (2013). “What if students revolt?”—considering student resistance: origins, options, and opportunities for investigation. CBE-Life Sciences Education12(4), 586-595. https://doi.org/10.1187/cbe-13-09-0190

Journal article with more than six authors (list first six authors and last author): Leung, W., Shaffer, C. D., Reed, L. K., Smith, S. T., Barshop, W., Dirkes, W., ... & Yuan, H. (2015). Drosophila Muller F elements maintain a distinct set of genomic properties over 40 million years of evolution. G3: Genes| Genomes| Genetics5(5), 719-740. https://doi.org/10.1534/g3.114.015966

Book: Singer, S. R., Nielsen, N. R., & Schweingruber, H. A. (2012). Discipline based education research. Washington, DC: The National Academies.

Chapter in edited volume: Lederman, N. G., Bartos, S. A., & Lederman, J. S. (2014). The development, use, and interpretation of nature of science assessments. In Matthews, M. R. (Ed.), International handbook of research in history, philosophy and science teaching (pp. 971-997). Netherlands: Springer.

Website: Genetic Science Learning Center. (2015, January 7) Learn.Genetics. Retrieved December 17, 2016, from http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/

Conference paper: Henderson, C., Beach, A., & Famiano, M. (2007, January). Diffusion of educational innovations via co-teaching. In 2006 Physics education research conference (Vol. 883, pp. 117-120).

Footnotes. Call out footnotes at the appropriate place in the text with a superscript numeral. The footnote text should be placed on a separate page after the References.

Figures. All figures should be uploaded as individual files.

Figure Legends. Figure legends should appear in numerical order after the References. Figure legends should provide an overview of the figure and details that describe any component parts.

Tables. All tables must be cited in order in the text of the manuscript. Individual table files need to be uploaded separately.

Supplemental Material. Upload all supplemental material (except in the case of videos) together in one combined PDF. Be sure to upload the final version of the supplemental material. It will be posted online as received and will not be edited.

Guidelines for Preparing Book Reviews

The overarching purpose of book reviews is to bring to readers’ attention textbooks or other curriculum books that are designed based on research principles/evidence based teaching principles, and guidebooks for education practice. LSE does not publish book reviews of general interest science books or standard textbooks. Instead, textbooks should clearly align with Vision and Change (or make a strong argument about why or how it diverges from this guiding document on transformation of undergraduate biology education), should have clearly stated, measurable, and observable student learning objectives or outcomes, and should include problems, questions, or other instructional materials that demand higher level thinking, quantitative reasoning, etc. from students. In order for LSE to consider a book for review, the author/publisher must provide the following:

•Permission to use cover art

•A review copy delivered to the review author

•If it is a textbook, a list of potential reviewers who have used the textbook in their teaching

The book review itself should include the complete book title, publisher information, author detail, ISBN, and retail price. The reviewer should suggest a title for the book review, but the title should be informative and descriptive of the book to most readers. For textbooks, the reviewer should have used the textbook in their teaching.

Guidelines for Preparing Digital Artwork

Digital artwork must accompany the manuscript submission. Figures should be uploaded as separate files with the manuscript through the online manuscript submission system. Because artwork must be of sufficient quality for print reproduction, LSE asks that all artwork be prepared using professional graphic art software. Word processing and presentation software packages (such as Word and PowerPoint) are inadequate for preparing high-quality digital artwork.

Prepare all digital artwork as RGB TIF images, at 300 dpi resolution, or EPS images:

Figure Size. Prepare figures at the size they are to be published.

Up to 1 column wide: Figure width should be 4.23-8.47 cm.

1 to 1.5 columns wide: Figure width should be 10.16-11.43 cm.

2 columns wide: Figure width should be 14.39-17.57 cm.

The figure depth must be less than or equal to 23.5 cm.

Guidelines for Preparing Electronic Resources

It is possible for authors to submit for peer review electronic works including, but not limited to, animations, Chime tutorials, movies, interactive websites that may include quizzes, images (electron micrographs, photomicrographs, etc.), Java Applets, searchable databases, etc. Articles that describe new educational uses of existing resources (e.g., Expression Connection, FlyBase, Database of Interacting Proteins, etc.) are also of interest. Manuscripts of this type should provide detailed instructions for use of the resource by the target audience.

For works using someone else's electronic resource (such as a database), a letter from the creator or curator of the resource indicating their willingness to support free pedagogical use of their work must be included. The same general rules for evaluation will apply to all electronic submissions. All submissions will be evaluated for (1) pedagogical content, (2) clear description of goals and expected student outcomes, (3) transferability to other settings, (4) appropriateness for the target audience, and (5) references to related educational literature. After publication of the electronic work(s), the authors will be encouraged to submit the work to other databases (National Digital Library, BEN, etc.); however, it is expected that the LSE publication citation will remain associated with the work. This will allow viewers to read a more in-depth discussion of the work.

All such electronic works must be freely available, and will be hosted on the LSE server or on the ASCB server, with the exception of large databases. This will ensure stable access to the works with a nonchanging URL.

A manuscript should accompany any electronic submission. The manuscript should describe 1) the learning goals or purpose of the electronic work, 2) the target audience, 3) development of the electronic work (describe hardware and software used), 4) platform availability (see below), 5) a description of any necessary hardware or software, with links to the appropriate sites for downloading (e.g., plugins, helper applications, etc.), and 6) assessment of the work's impact on student learning.

Ideally, submitted works should work on any platform (PC, Mac, Unix) and on all browsers. If there are known restrictions, these should be included in the manuscript. LSE can help authors test their works for such limitations if they do not have access to certain platforms or browsers. 

The electronic work may have been hosted previously on any website, but the authors may not have previously published any description of the electronic work other than the associated Web pages. Published journal descriptions of the electronic work will preclude publication in LSE, with the exception of abstracts or presentations at professional meetings.

The online publication will include hyperlinks to the work that will appear in a new browser window, if appropriate. This capacity could be helpful to the authors since they could provide directions for readers as needed to illustrate particular aspects of the work. The layout and submission process for the manuscript accompanying an electronic work should follow the same general format as other categories. The electronic work should be submitted to LSE at the same time as the manuscript. If this presents a problem, contact LSE staff for assistance.

Sharing Materials and Data

Publication of a manuscript in LSE implies that the authors agree to make available, to the extent legally permissible, all propagative materials such as mutant organisms, cell lines, recombinant plasmids, vectors, viruses, monoclonal antibodies, instructional materials, and assessment instruments that were used to obtain results presented in the article. Prior to obtaining these materials, interested scientists will provide the authors with a written statement that they will be used for noncommercial research purposes only. Authors are encouraged to share raw data with qualified researchers who wish to reproduce or further analyze the authors’ work for noncommercial purposes. Sharing of data on human subjects should be consistent with the conditions of the Human Subjects protocol approved by the authors’ Institutional Review Board (and any other agreements made with the subjects) for the work reported.

How to Submit Manuscripts

Electronic Submission. Authors must submit manuscripts online at www.cellbiologyeducation.org. Specific instructions on how to submit your manuscript are available at the submission site. Authors should submit the manuscript in .doc, .docx, or .rtf as two text files, the first containing the cover letter and the second containing the manuscript file. Figures, tables, and Supplemental Material, including Appendixes, must be submitted as individual files. Do not embed figures in the manuscript. If you are submitting a feature that does not contain an abstract or keywords, write “There is no abstract” in the required abstract field and “one,” “two,” and “three” in the keyword fields.

Questions regarding submission guidelines can be directed to: cbe@ascb.org or 301-347-9338.

Article Publication Charge

For submissions on or after January 1, 2018, authors will be expected to pay an article publication charge of $1,900 for each article or essay published in LSE. To mitigate the burden of article publication charges, especially for authors who do not have extramural or institutional funding for publishing, we will grant requests to reduce or waive fees when authors provide appropriate justification. We strongly encourage authors who do not have a source of funding for publishing their scholarship to request waivers or fee reductions. A mechanism to make waiver or fee reduction requests will be incorporated into the submission pro¬cess. It will also be possible to request waivers and fee reductions in advance of submission. Authors may be asked to provide a letter from their dean or department chair describing available funding. The ability of authors to pay article charges and any decisions regarding fee waivers will not be a factor in LSE's editorial review process.

General Questions

At any stage in the submission process, authors with questions should contact the LSE Editorial Office at 301-347-9338 (phone); 301-347-9350 (fax); cbe@ascb.org; or The American Society for Cell Biology, 8120 Woodmont Avenue, Suite 750, Bethesda, MD 20814-2762.

You are encouraged to contact editorial board members or the Editor-in-Chief by email to discuss submissions to LSE.

The LSE website is an additional resource to authors. See earlier issues of LSE for examples of the different types of manuscripts published.

Last updated on 9/1/2017.

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