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Laszio, John. Understanding Cancer. New York, New York: Harper and Row. 1984.
Holleb, Arthur. Cancer Book. Gardencity, New York: Madrona Publishing Inc., 1984.
Struss, linda. When a parent has cancer. New York, New York: Rosen Publishing group Inc., 1988.
I. Introduction 1
II. Definition 1
A) Different forms and types 2
B) How it is categorized 2
III. Different causes of lung cancer 2
A) Causes 2
B) Causes from tobacco smoking 2-3
IV. Symptoms 3-4
V. Diagnosis 4
VI. Spreading process 5
A) Areas of spreading 5
B) Rate of spreading 5
VII. Treatment 5
A) Types of treatment 6
1. Surgery 6
2. Radiation 6
3. Chemotherapy 6
B) Rehabilitation 6-7
VIII. How it effects the families 7
Lung cancer is a complex disease that indiscriminately chooses its hosts and will complicate the lives of the persons it infects.
From the moment the doctor diagnosis a person with cancer, their lives will never be the same (Struss,4). Whether or not a person is one of the cancer patients for whom treatment is successful. That person plans are bound to be disturbed in some way (holleb,5). Cancer may cause turmoil in a family, changing priorities, and altering relationships. at times people even feal as if the disease has completely taken over their lives. (struss,4). For some people the case is that the cancer may grow and spread throughout the body, causing them to under go sometimes a tedious treatment process .
The term cancer is a Greek word for crab. Cancer is basically an abnormal growth of malignant cells ("Adults"). These cells are not foreign, but are in fact part of our bodies all our lives (Anku, 7). There are two major types of cancers, solid tumor carcinoma and sarcoma. Carcinomas are directly applied to malignant tumors and sarcomas are other major forms of cancer , these include tumors that originate from muscles, bones, or fibrous tissues (Lazio, 64-65). Cancer by itself is not deadly until it infects a certain part of our bodies. The part of the body infected is one of the many ways of categorizing the cancer to find out what type the person might have (Anku,7).
Lung cancer is one particular type of cancer that is more deadly and common than any other. Lung cancer is defined as being a tumor in the lung consisting of many mutated cancer cells ("Adults"). One of the danger factors involved with lung cancer is that if the cancer is not caught early enough it may grow out of control because cancer is malignant. A malignant cancer is a life threatening, uncontrollable growth of body tissue ("Adults").
One of the unique features of lung cancer is its ability to travel and grow in distant parts of the body. This process is called metastasis. This special
characteristic is what distinguishes whether the cancer is malignant ,cancerous, or benign, non cancerous (Laszio,65).
The exact cause of cancer is unknown but some scientist believe that a person can be born with abnormal cells, and that these remain quiescent throughout life until some factor start them growing ("Cancer", 294-5). Some known causes of lung cancer are smoking, environmental hazards and air pollution ("Adults"). Chronic irritation of a certain group of cells may also lead to cancerous changes ("Cancer", 295) and some specialists think heredity may be a significant factor but a relationship between the two have not yet been established ("Cancer", 295). Out of
all those causes smoking is a major cause and also the leading cause of cancer related death ("Lung").
Symptoms of early cancer are often barely noticeable ("Cancer", 295). Some symptoms of lung cancer can be having a cough most of the time, a change in a cough you have had for a long time, or being short of breath. Coughing up phlem (sputm) with signs of blood in it, an ache or pain when breathing or coughing, or losing large amounts of weight are some of the more common symptoms of lung cancer ("Adults").
Aside from some of the more common symptoms, there are some that are less common. These are a hoarse voice, difficulty in swallowing, swelling in the face or neck, or shortness of breath caused by fluid around the lung (called pleura effusion). All of these symptoms can be caused by other diseases besides lung cancer ("Adult").
Occasionally there are some odd symptoms of lung cancer. For example, the cancer cells produce hormones that get into the blood stream. These hormones can produce strange symptoms that somebody may not realize are anything to do with lung cancer. Symptoms like pins and needles, numbness in fingers, toes or muscle
weakness. Also a person may get drowsy or confused. These symptoms rarely occur but are still possible symptoms of lung cancer ("Adult").
The diagnosis of lung cancer is made by looking at cells under a microscope and seeing their characteristics and abnormal pattern of growth (Laszio,64). Cancer cells are often large and with irregular outlines, and they have abnormal amounts of
DNA and numerous cell divisions (Laszio,64). Another means of diagnosis is bronchoscope which is passage of a listed, flexible telescope into the infected bronchial tube to see and sample the abnormal areas ("Adult"). Some of the means
of classifying cancer is according to type of tissue involved, speed of its growth, and portion of the body infected ("Cancer", 295).
Cancer is a disease characterized by abnormal and often unpredictable growth of cells. Cancerous growth are also disposed to invade normal healthy tissues which can be destroyed or even replaced by their wild growth. Nerves may also be infected by the abnormal cancer cells , causing hemorrhaging , and structures such as lung tissues, the arteries, or kidneys and bladder, may be obstructed by infiltration of cancer tissue.. Every part of the body is susceptible to cancerous growth, through some organs, such as stomach, bowl, lung and sexual organs , seem more frequently involved ("cancer", 293).
Growth may be rapid or slow but usually is progressive, that is that the cancer does not stop growing once it begins. Some cancers stay in one location and there are some that spread or metastasize throughout the body ("Cancer", 294).
Cells from the edge of a malignant tumor tend to spread to surrounding normal areas of the body and replace normal tissue and organs, ("Adult") however, a slow growing cancer may stay for many years within the confines of its point of origin (Anku, 9).
When the cancer spreads or metastasizes, the most common means of travel is through the blood stream. Another means of spreading is by the lymph system which consists of the lymph channel and the lymph nodes ("Cancer", 7). Some of the most common places the cancer from the lung may metastasize to are the brain, the other lung, the liver, the bones, and specifically the ribs ("Adult").
Cancer can be cured but an instant cure has not yet been discovered (Laszio, 28). Thanks to new drugs and technology, people are living with cancer and can be more active and live a normal life (Laszio, 30). Some of these discoveries include radiation and chemotherapy. We also know surgery has been around for a long time and major improvements to the utilized procedures and techniques are constantly being made (Anku, 24).
Surgery, the oldest and still the number one method of treating cancer was until recently the only method of treatment available (Anku, 24). The two types of surgery are hollow needle biopsy and open biopsy. Hollow needle biopsy is used when the abnormal or cancerous tissue can not be removed completely. Instead, a piece of the tissue is taken for diagnoses and to determine the course of further treatment. Open biopsy is the complete removal of the cancerous tissue ("Adult").
Radiotherapy or radiation treatment is the use of x-rays, electrons, or gamma rays to treat cancer ("Adult"). Radiation inhibits the cancer cells from dividing or reproducing until the cancer can be extracted ("Adult").
Chemotherapy, the third type of treatment, disseminates cancer killing chemicals throughout the body in order these chemicals kill tumor cells wherever they may be, whether in sizable lumps or in tiny nests of cells that may be visible only by the use of a microscope (Laszio, 43). While on chemotherapy a patient can continue to take most medications such as minor tranquilizers, sleeping aids, pain killers, and pills for high blood pressure (anku,103).
If you are diagnosed with lung cancer there are a few things you can do to help your body. For example you should exercise according to your doctors recommendations, eat regular nutritious meals, drink plenty of fluids, stop smoking
if you smoke and get plenty of rest . Seeing as you may need to take certain drugs to aid you along with your treatment, you may want to cut back or even stop drinking alcohol ("Adult").
Living with cancer can be a very difficult thing for both the victim and the victims families. Having a parent that has to live with lung cancer, I can relate with the people and their families that have to deal with this devastating disease . Most people when told they have cancer are usually shocked, afraid, and confused. The
family of the cancer patient can be very upset and worried that death may occur ("Adult").
All the material you can find on cancer will not prepare you for this disease, because it is a devastating and emotional thing to find out about. One can only hope that this disease doesn't affect them or someone close to them. Thanks to information we can better understand cancer and learn to prevent it. being knowledgeable about cancer and its causes is the first giant step to prevention, but you also have to be smart enough to not put yourself at risk of getting cancer.
Among terminal diseases humanity has not yet learned to treat, cancer is probably one of the most feared illnesses. Unlike AIDS or other diseases widely spread in countries with low standards of living, cancer’s geography is much wider, including both rich and poor countries equally. Among the variety of different types of cancer, one of the most common is lung cancer; the environment in which people live in the 21st century greatly contributes to the development of this type of cancer.
The first and the most popular cause of lung cancer is smoking cigarettes. By numerous estimates, smoking cigarettes causes approximately 86% of lung cancer cases, including cases caused by passive exposure to smoke exhaled by other smokers. These chances increase if a person started smoking tobacco at a young age. Passive smoking poses a lesser threat, but is still dangerous—it is known that passive smokers (who are usually exposed to smoke at work or at home) have a 25% higher risk of lung cancer compared to people who are not exposed to the smoke of cigarettes. Regular heavy exposure to environmental tobacco smoke can increase the risk of lung cancer by 50% (CancerResearch UK).
Genetics and lung diseases in one’s genetics can also become significant risk factors of lung cancer. For example, if a person’s mother, father, sibling, aunt, uncle, or grandparent has had lung cancer, the chances of this person developing lung cancer slightly increases. At the same time, it has not been yet researched whether genes indeed increase cancer chances, or they increase individuals’ susceptibility to this disease. As for lung diseases, some of them are known to affect the chances of cancer development. In particular, among such diseases are tuberculosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Other illnesses like chronic bronchitis and emphysema can cause scarring in the lungs, which means the increase of the amount of tissue in them—and as it is known, cancer is an uncontrolled division of cells, and the respective multiplication of tissues (Healthline).
As for other environmental factors, one of the most significant among them is the exposure to asbestos fibers and similar materials. Usually, a person is exposed to these silicate materials at the workplace: technical works, such as thermal and acoustic insulation, involve the usage of asbestos. Nowadays, asbestos is limited or even prohibited from usage, since it has been proven that asbestos materials can cause both lung cancer and mesothelioma (cancer of the lungs’ pleura, as well as cancer of peritoneum—a lining of the abdominal cavity). Even non-smoking asbestos workers have a five times higher risk of developing lung cancer; as for the smoking asbestos workers, their chances to get cancer are up to ninety-fold greater than nonsmokers (MedicineNet.com).
As it can be seen, lung cancer does not develop on its own, but is triggered by a number of factors. The first and foremost of them is smoking tobacco, both active and passive. Exposure to asbestos materials also increases a person’s chances to get lung cancer. Also, genetics and past lung illnesses can lead to the development of this type of cancer. The cure for lung cancer is not finalized, and remains an epidemic.
“Lung Cancer Symptoms, Causes, Treatment.” MedicineNet. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Aug. 2015.
“Lung Cancer Risks and Causes.” CancerResearch UK. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Aug. 2015.
“Lung Cancer Causes.” Healthline. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Aug. 2015.
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