Tourism is an important socio-economic activity. It provides enormous scope for economic development of a particular area.
According to Ziffer (1989), “Tourism involves travelling to relatively undisturbed or uncontaminated natural areas with the specific object of studying, admiring and enjoying the scenery and its wild plants and animals, as well as any existing cultural aspects (both past and present) found in these areas.”
In India, temple towns, historical monuments and sea beaches were traditionally sought out as tourist attractions. But now the fabric of tourism is changing rapidly as nature, heritage, and recreational destinations are gaining more importance. In this background, eco-tourism has of late become a top attraction for the tourists.
Growth of Tourism:
The root of tourism in India can be traced to pilgrimage. In the early stages, pilgrimage-based tourism was only of domestic nature but during recent years, a large number of foreign tourists have also started visiting places of pilgrimage.
India has an unending choice for the tourists—a 3,500 km long and 8,848 beautiful long beaches on the sea coast, gregarious tropical forests, the great variety of lifestyle. India’s share in international tourist arrivals was 0.34 per cent in 2002 and it increased to 0.49 per cent during 2005.
The increasing trend has been maintained over the last three years and international tourist arrivals touched 3.92 million in 2005. The World Travel and Tourism Council have identified India as one of the foremost growth centres in the world in the coming decade. Domestic tourism is estimated to be much higher than international tourism and has also been rising rapidly.
The Tenth Plan recognised the vast employment generating potential of tourism and the role it can play in furthering the socio-economic objectives of the Plan. Tourism is the third largest net earner of foreign exchange for the country. Tourism in India has vast employment potential. By 2015, it is expected to provide 25 million jobs.
Classification of Tourist Places in India:
The famous places of tourist interest in India can be classified on the basis of their geographical location and historical and cultural importance:
(i) India has a natural landscape with a variety of attractions for tourists. There are snow-covered peaks, valleys, gorges and numerous waterfalls, lakes, and forests that attract tourists. Nature tourism is identified with the Himalayas, the Western Ghats, the Chotanagpur plateau and other places.
The places of importance include hill-stations like Shimla, Kullu, Mussorie, Nainital and Udagamandalam (Ooty); national parks and wildlife reserves like the Sanjay Gandhi National Park (Mumbai, Maharashtra) Ranthambore National Park (Rajasthan), Sariska National Park (Rajasthan), Periyar National Park (Tamil Nadu), Kaziranga (Assam), Kolleru Lake (Andhra Pradesh) and Hazaribagh Wildlife Sanctuary (Jharkhand).
(ii) Adventure tourism has grown in popularity and India has enormous potential for adventure tourism. River-rafting, kayaking and mountain climbing in the Himalayas, rock climbing, skiing in the snow-covered hilly areas, boat racing in Kerala and paragliding are some favourite adventure sports of tourists.
(iii) Some famous sea beaches thronged by tourists in India include beaches of Mumbai, Goa, Lakshwadeep, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Kovalam Beach in Kerala, Marine Beach in Chennai and the beach temples of Mahabalipuram.
(iv) India is famous for its cultural and religious tourist places that include towns and cities. Allahabad, Ajmer, Ayodhya, Badrinath, Bodh Gaya, Dwarka, Haridwar, Kanchipuram, Kedarnath, Kochi, Madurai, Tirupati, Ujjain, Varanasi and Yamunotri are places of cultural and religious tourism that are visited by numerous domestic tourists as well as tourists from abroad.
(v) India’s historical monuments and archaeological sites are of interest to domestic and international tourists. The Taj Mahal, Red Fort, Jama Masjid (Delhi), Humayun’s Tomb (Delhi), India Gate (Delhi), Charminar (Hyderabad), the Gateway of India (Mumbai), Hawa Mahal (Jaipur) and places like Udaipur, Sanchi, Khajuraho, Aurangabad attracts tourists.
Introduction: Tourism is the practice of travelling for pleasure especially on one’s holidays. It is an organized journey during which several places are visited.
Importance of Tourism
Tourism is one of the major source of foreign exchange. Tourism is not merely a business for providing pleasure and rest. It has now grown into a big industry. Every year thousands of foreigners come to India as a result of which we earn a lot of foreign exchange.
Tourism Industry creates employment and contributes towards improving the economy.Tourism has caused the growth of travel agencies and tour operators, establishment of hotels and guest houses, restaurants and eating houses, making of luxury coaches and vehicles, and introduction of super-luxury trains and airways. It has also encouraged the revival and modernization. Of many small-scale cottage industries whose artisans and craftsmen have now flooded the market with innumerable gift items and curios. It its own way tourism is thus trying to solve a part of our vast unemployment problem.
Tours and holidays are the necessities of modern busy life.Gone are our peaceful and leisurely ways of life. Instead we have now to lead a busy and hurried life. in our daily life, we have to work very hard while discharging our duties and responsibilities. We also have to respond to various calls coming from home and outside. After performing all these we feel very tired and find that all our strength and energy has drained out. If it continues for a long time we fall a prey to complex physical and mental illness. Now nothing can replenish our lost energy so quickly and comfortably as tourism. We realize that the benefits of tourism are much more than what we pay for it.
Motives/Purposes behind of Tourism
Tourism serves some purposes such as:
1. It causes us to go to near or distant places, to see things with our eyes, and to fulfill our curiosity.
2. It satisfies our hunger for natural-beauty. A beautiful mountain scene, a lovely beach, or an exquisite sculptural work, casts an irresistible charm on our mind, and tourism lets us enjoy it to the full.
3. It makes us tolerant and broadminded so as to appreciate different people, their speech and dress, their manners and customs, their social and economic conditions.
4. It encourages intercultural contacts and intercultural activities.
Major Tourist Spots in India
There are a few countries which can compete with India in respect of worth-seeding tourists’ spots.
Hill stations: India has such hill stations as Darjeeling, Shillong, Gangtok, Manali, Shimla and Kashmir, Ooty and Panchmari.
Sea beaches: India has magnificent sea beaches at Puri and Pondicherry, Kovalam and Goa.
Architectural beauty:Sculptural marvels like the Taj Mahal, Khajuraho and Konark, temples like Meenakshi and Kanyakumari, caves liked Ajanta and Ellora, forts like Agra and Red Fort (Lal Kila).
Forests:Forests like the Sunderbans, and sanctuaries and national parks such as Kaziranga and Jaldapara , are important tourist destinations.
Religious places:Places of worship like Sringeri Math and Vaishno Devi for the Hindus, Pawapuri and Dilwara for the Jains, and Jama Masjid and Khaja Baba Mosque for the Muslims,.
Metropolitan cities:Metropolitan cities liked Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata and Chennai add to the unending list of her marvelous tourist spots.
India has everything: modern cities, sea-beaches, deserts, virgin jungles, ancient ruins, mouth-watering food and an ancient culture. People flock from all over the world to enjoy the attractions. India has so much to offer that the tourists love it.
Category: Essays, Paragraphs and ArticlesTagged With: Tourism